Chronic Asthma Sample Essay

Posted: November 10th, 2022

Chronic Asthma Sample Essay


Part 1.

Chronic asthma is a condition resultant from viral and bacterial infection on the lungs. In addition, it can be caused by type 2 inflammation to the lungs and vitiated lung development. These conditions cause the lungs to become more sensitive, with the cells responsible for immunological responses promoting hyper-responsiveness that inflames the bronchial mucosa of the airways. Mast cell eosinophils, dendritic cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, basophils, B lymphocytes and T helper cells are the cells responsible for the immunological response(Lehne, 2015). Chronic Asthma Sample Essay


Acute asthma is a condition caused by the lungs coming into contact with mast cells that are bound to the inhaled antigens. Once bound, the mast cells undergo degranulation to release inflammatory mediators that include interleukins, leukotrienes, prostaglandins, bradykinins, and platelet activating factor. Once released, the mediators cause bronchospasm by activating the smooth muscles along the airways. Also, these mediators cause edema by making the capillaries in the lungs more permeable. The goblet cells in the lungs also mount a response by constricting and obstructing the lung passages to increase mucus secretion (Gielen et al., 2015). In addition to the responses that have been discussed, antigens stimulate dendritic cells that mediate interleukins release through signaling Th2 cells. The released interleukins stimulate dendritic cells to produce IgE. Also, the interleukins stimulate eosinophil production, damaging the epithelium in the lungs and hindering breathing activity(Huether & McCance, 2017).  Chronic Asthma Sample Essay

Part 2.

The selected factor is allergens. They influence asthma pathophysiology though irritating the lungs. In fact, allergens are the single largest cause of asthma. They gain entry to the body through swallowing, inhaling, injection and touching, before coming into contact with the immune system. An allergic reaction ensues whereby the eyes become watery, the nose becomes itchy, and the individual sneezes. This is followed by inflammation and bronchoconstriction of the lungs. To be more precise, the allergens trigger the mast cells to cause bronchospasm and an asthmatic reaction by producing histamine leukotrines (Macera, Shaffer, R. & Shaffer, P., 2013).Chronic Asthma Sample Essay

Part 3.

The presence of allergens in the patient’s environment can help in diagnosing allergic asthma. The diagnosis is confirmed using a three step process. Firstly, the patient is interviewed and environment evaluate for presence of lung irritants and allergens. The presence of allergens and irritants can explain the hyper-responsiveness. Secondly, the patient is physically examined and subjected to spirometry even as the medical history is evaluated since previous incidence of asthma can explain the current incidence. Finally, the patient undergoes comprehensive medical examination that evaluates allergy and inflammation biomarkers. The examination also conducts a pulmonary function test and checks for methacholine bronchoprovocation. Breathing difficulties, respiratory distress and wheezing are also indicators of asthma. The diagnosis is followed by treatment whereby anti-inflammatory medicine is prescribed to clear up the airways (Copstead-Kirkhorn & Banasik, 2014). Chronic Asthma Sample Essay

Mind maps

Figure 1. Mind map for chronic asthma

Figure 2. Mind map for acute asthma


Copstead-Kirkhorn, L. & Banasik, J. (2014). Pathophysiology (5th ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Gielen, S., Backer, G., Piepoli, M. & Wood, D. (2015). The esc textbook of preventive cardiology: clinical practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Huether, S. & McCance, K. (2017). Understanding pathophysiology (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

Lehne, R. A. (2015). Pharmacology for nursing care (9th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Saunders/Elsevier.

Macera, C., Shaffer, R. & Shaffer, P. (2013). Introduction to epidemiology: distribution and determinants of disease in humans. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar. Chronic Asthma Sample Essay

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