Clinical Theory Essay Discussion Paper

Posted: December 21st, 2022

Clinical Theory Essay Discussion Paper

Introduction of J

J is 2 years and 11 months old boy who was born to a Korean- Dutch family. His father is Korean, and his mother is Dutch. J has neither siblings nor relatives in the USA.  His mother is fluent in Dutch and his father is fluent in Korean; however, parents communicate in English at home, especially around J. They also try to teach J Dutch and Korean as secondary language. Although he lacks verbal skills, J demonstrates strengths in pointing and creating gestures to communicate, following directions, interacting with peers on a level of suitable moral and ethical conduct, enjoying playing in close vicinity to other children, and engaging in creative/ imaginative play activities.

J is overall healthy with average height and weight. He was born via natural birth without any complications, and he does not have any allergies or birth defects.  J was breastfed for about 14 months and introduced to pureed baby food around 6-7 months old. Currently, he is eating solid foods and growing up healthy.  Clinical Theory Essay Discussion Paper


Denver Developmental Screening on J

The Denver Developmental Screening Test II is a valuable tool for identifying potential developmental delays in toddlers. A child who exhibits deficiencies in any of the four developmental areas may be referred for additional testing in order to address any concerning findings. It may also provide parents with confidence about what is expected of them as their youngster grows and develops. A child’s overall condition is examined via the use of the DDST II since it checks for age-appropriate progress in gross motor skills, language abilities, motor coordination skills, and social qualities (Frankenburg et al., 1992). Early management and referrals for developmental issues may result in more positive outcomes.

The child exhibited proficiency in all screening areas that were still available to him after reaching the age of majority. The child was adamant in his refusal to “scribble.” This is a delay since the mother said that the child “loves to draw,” but this was not a talent that could be approved by “report.” With respect to the screening groups that intersected with the age line, the youngster passed 12 out of the 15 competencies on the checklist (Frankenburg et al., 1992). Because none of the poor skills fell under the 75-90 percent / blue range, these data are considered normal. In the areas to the right of the age line, the child passed three out of the twelve tests. The mother was informed that passing all of the screening skills was not anticipated of her child. “Kick ball forward” and “throw ball above,” two gross motor skills, and one language competence, “speak half comprehensible,” were the three age-appropriate skills in which the client displayed problems.

The child was cooperative and attentive, but he was also a little shy. The mother remarked that the child’s conduct was typical of her children. As per the DDST II criteria, the general development of this child is considered normal. But since the youngster declined to display his or her “scribbles” competence, which causes a delay, the development of the child is deemed suspect. Despite the fact that the child failed three tasks that were within the acceptable age range, the tests did not fall within the warning scope. At this point, no suggestions for referral are being provided

 Family Genogram

As per the Bowen Family Systems Theory, the family operates as an emotional unit – a person is better judged and understood when seen in the context of the family unit rather than when viewed in the context of the individual. The activity of one member of the family has an impact on and influences the response of another member of the family. Every member’s well-balanced conduct contributes to the overall harmony of the family structure. On the other side, dysfunctional conduct may upset the delicate balance and trigger a chain of events that can have far-reaching consequences for the whole family. In accordance with the Bowen Theory, genograms unquestionably play a significant part in comprehending the interconnectedness of the connections between family members (Wiseman & Sagar, 2018). The genogram is included in this theory to better understand the associations J is having with his family members going through the process of developmental stages. Clinical Theory Essay Discussion Paper

The index person is J., two year 11 months, old boy who seems to have no serious health problem. He was born to his Korean father, D., 41 years old, and his Netherlander mother, E., 29 years old. His father, D, immigrated when he was 30 years old. Both his parents are in good health, and both work at a hotel. In J’s paternal lineage, he has one uncle, who is 45 years old and has a wife and two sons. J.’s maternal family includes one uncle, 26-year-old, who is married and has one son. J.’s paternal grandparents are both deceased. His maternal grandmother is deceased, while his maternal grandfather is alive, 72-year years old, and has Alzheimer’s disease.

J’s Family Culture and Beliefs on Parenting

J is half Korean and half Netherlander, and his first language is English. J’s mom was born and raised in the Netherlands, while her father was born and raised in Korea. They met when J’s dad was 30 years old and J mum was 18 years old. They are both able to communicate in English, although not smoothly, but they are able to communicate with each other in English as well J. J’s mother teaches Netherlanders such as mama and dada, while J’s father also teaches Korean to his students. J’s parents want him to be able to communicate in  Korean, Netherlander and English.

Language is among the numerous ways in which culture has an impact on development. Early on in life, young children acquire a conversational approach that is identical to that of their parents – and this is mostly impacted by their cultural background (Chen et al., 2019).  When it comes to Netherland children, long, elaborative, and self-centered tales are typical, with a strong emphasis on personal preferences and liberty. The type of communication used by the two of them is likewise reciprocal, with each of them taking turns conversing. In contrast, the accounts of Korean children are generally brief and interpersonal in nature, with a strong distaste for authoritative figures. In most interactions, they are more a passive participant.

As Huang (2018) points out, Netherlander mothers, like J’s mother, place a higher value on their children’s wants, desires, and personalities than other cultures. Mothers from the Netherlands, according to Huang (2018), are more interested in the social milieu in which their children grow up. This might involve the child’s relationships with others and the norms that regulate their behavior and relationships with others (Huang, 2018). It has an influence on how children communicate with themselves and others, creating their self-image and personality as a result of this early exposure. Clinical Theory Essay Discussion Paper

J’s parents are the ones who can take care of and guide him in the process of his development. It is their responsibility to give what the child needs in order to fulfill their duties as an effective parent. These guiding practices may affect their behavior while they are developing at the same time growing by means of it depend on the child’s foundation of how can he/he look at the reality of life (Chen et al., 2019).

The parents know what is best for their child; that is why they use it in order to cope with every developmental process. They focus on what is best when it comes to the life of their child. The understanding, culture, values, and beliefs of families are valued, and families share in decision-making about their child’s learning and wellbeing because they are establishing and creating a good future for their child. They want to give the best in order to have a wonderful life because they must know what will be good for their child.


J‘s Development in the Theorists’ Views

During the first few interactions with J, it appears that he is emotionally and psychologically tied to his mum. J’s separation anxiety from his mother is better understood in light of Bowlby’s theory. According to Bowlby’s concept, attachment begins to form between children and their main caregivers around the age of 18 months, shown by innate behavior including clinging and sobbing. When newborns reach the age of 7-8 months, they have a propensity to protest and cry out when their main caregivers are not around. Specific attachment theory states that during this 7–9-month period, the styles of early connection between main caregivers and babies evolve along a range of emotional control, ranging from anxious-avoidant type to anxious-resistant pattern. With the exception of his mother, J has been establishing an uneasy resistive connection to her, which is aided by the acute sensitive reaction he gets from this main caregiver.

Moreover, Erikson’s theory contributes to J’s understanding of shyness by describing social growth and relationship with the external surroundings (Malik & Marwaha, 2020). From an early age, a child develops sensitive, cooperative interactions with caregivers and gradually learns to control stress in her surroundings, which is a phase of personality development known as temperament formation (Malik & Marwaha, 2020). Independence arises between the ages of 18 months and 3 years, as a result of trust in the kid and parent’s connection; the sense of security that actively aids the child involves environmental obstacles (Malik & Marwaha, 2020). In favorable settings, this beneficial influence results in a personality that is flexible, sociable, and cooperative, as opposed to a personality that is hesitant to warm up or hesitant in difficult circumstances (Malik & Marwaha, 2020).

A person’s personality changes throughout the span of eight stages of psychosocial development, starting in infancy and continuing into maturity, in accordance with Erickson’s theory of personality development. A psychosocial crisis occurs at every level, with the result depending on whether the crisis is good or harmful for the individual’s development (Knight, 2017). Autonomy versus shame and doubt is a stage of Erik Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development that is relevant to our case. In order to attain success at this point, one must possess the virtue of determination. A child’s confidence in his or her ability to prosper on this planet grows as he or she is actively promoted in this phase of development. Because they feel insufficient in their capacity to survive when they are chastised, unnecessarily regulated, or not offered the chance to express themselves, children may become over reliant on others and suffer from low self-esteem, as well as feelings of guilt or doubt about their capabilities. Clinical Theory Essay Discussion Paper

As the child develops physically and becomes more vigorous, he also comes to realize that they possess a wide variety of talents and skills, including the ability to dress themselves and engage in various play activities (Firmansyah, 2018). Such capabilities might demonstrate a child’s growing sense of independence and self-reliance. Children begin to demonstrate their independence at this time span in many ways, such as wandering away from their mothers or selecting which items to play with or what food to consume. For example, it’s clear to see in J.’s development as he begins to build his autonomy by moving away from his mother’s side, selecting his own toys, and selecting what to do.

Children need to be allowed to explore the limits of their abilities in a nurturing environment that allows for errors, according to Erikson. It’s important for parents to be patient with their children when it comes to getting them ready for the day. A parent’s job as a guide and a motivator are to help their children grow increasingly self-reliant while also protecting them from recurrent failures. A careful equilibrium must be maintained by the parent at all times. Even though parents should make their best attempt not to do everything for their children, they should avoid blaming their children for their mistakes and blunders (Raboteg-Saric & Sakic, 2018). Having self-control without sacrificing one’s self-esteem must be the ultimate goal.

The social learning theory, introduced by Albert Bandura, is also a developmental theory, which is applicable to J.’s case. This theory takes into account how both cognitive and environmental variables interplay to impact human development and conduct. The significance of observing, modeling, and imitating the actions, emotions, and affective responses of others is emphasized by social learning theory. It is possible to categorize the observational learning process into four phases: Attention, Retention, Reproduction, and Motivation. For instance, J was introduced to how to fold blankets and how to fold his socks. By observing his mother, since infancy, he learned and imitated his mother’s routine work. Even J’s mother has not taught him but whenever he imitates his mother, she will respond to the with reinforcements like good boy or good job. When J imitates a parent’s behavior, and the consequences are rewarding, such as verbally, he is likely to continue performing the behavior.

Observing how others in their immediate surroundings act might help children develop a better understanding of the world around them. Bobo doll experiment, a well-known illustration of this, clearly demonstrates this. Models are people who have been observed. Parents, children’s television celebrities, friends, and teachers at school all serve as strong role models for children in today’s society. These models provide a wide range of behavior to study and copy, including features of femininity and masculinity, pro-and anti-social conduct, and so on (Rumjaun & Narod, 2020). Several of these models attract the interest of children, who learn from their actions. The conduct they have watched may inspire them to repeat it at a later time.

Even if the behavior is not deemed “gender acceptable,” there are several processes that make it more likely that a child would imitate the action that is regarded appropriate for its gender by its society. Children are more likely to pay attention and imitate those that they see as being like themselves. So it is more likely that the behavior they witness will be copied by others of their gender. In addition, those who are in the child’s near vicinity will either praise or penalize the behavior the child is imitating. Positive results from modeling behavior increase the likelihood of future imitation by children who learn from their mistakes.

Human development is complex, and the profound ideas regarding J.’s development were evaluated through the lenses of two fundamental theories. It is possible to see how human development is intertwined by examining J.’s development from 2 distinct angles. As a result, the need to look at nourishment and nurturing from a variety of perspectives is made clear. For J., the most comprehensive technique may be to cultivate his breadth of cognition, emotions, and personality from a mystical standpoint. Clinical Theory Essay Discussion Paper

Psychological Development of a Child

A human being’s growth and change constantly happen over the lifetime, which leads to physical, cognitive, emotional, and social functioning maturity through the transitions, from infant to adult age (Chung, 2018). Buchanan (2014) emphasized that the transitions are influenced by various factors, such as internal and external environment, cultures, beliefs, diverse life experiences, etc. For instance, the child’s relationship with his or her primary caregiver in a nurturing environment is a significant element of the maturation process (Buchanan, 2014). Therefore, it is important to understand child development from many different perspectives. In addition, healthy and appropriate development of the mind and behaviors play an essential role in creating an individual’s personality. The following sections will discuss H.R.’s milestones in various aspects of the developmental stages of life as explained by different psychological developmental theories that include psychosexual, attachment, behavioral, cognitive, psychosocial, moral, and social learning.

Introduction of H.R.

H.R. is a 3 ½-year-old female who was born to an American-half Chinese family. Her mother is Caucasian, and her father is Chinese who was born in America. She does not have any siblings; however, she has a dog called “Pipsy,” who was adopted eight months ago. H.R. speaks English fluently as her primary language. Although her grandparents from her father’s side are immigrant native Chinese, H.R.’s father is more dominant to American culture. Thus, a bicultural lifestyle rarely influences H.R., according to her mother.

H.R. is overall healthy except she is underweight, around 30 lbs. Her appearance is neat, age-appropriate, skinny, and slightly below the average height. She was born via cesarean section without any complications. From her infant stage, she has been underweight and brought up with her pediatrician’s attention. However, there has not been any serious concerns as long as she maintains her good appetite. H.R. was breastfed for about 26 months. She was also introduced to pureed baby food around 5-6 months old only for a couple of months and then moved into the solid food. H.R. has been introduced to various foods, and she was given an opportunity to make her choice about foods under the meals planned by her mother. It seems to affect H.R. positively to build up her healthy dietary habits.

H.R.’s Family Culture and Beliefs on Parenting

H.R.’s parents are deeply oriented to a vegan dietary lifestyle, which leads to her eating habits. H.R.’s mother has a strong desire for nurturing H.R. in nature, and extends her philosophy into veganism and other areas of her family’s lives. In addition, H.R.’s mother believes in the importance of positive parenting, especially the relationship between parent and child. As emphasized in the book, You are your child’s first teacher (Baldwin Dancy, 1989), H.R.’s mother considers “home life as the basis for all learning” (p. 26). H.R.’s mother has adopted gentle guidance or positive discipline. Rather than controlling H.R.’s behaviors, H.R.’s mother has been approaching H.R. to help her understanding in a positive way and to build up responsibility without punishment. With these great opportunities, H.R.’s mother prefers homeschooling for H.R. until kindergarten age, and H.R.’s has never attended daycare or preschool yet. Clinical Theory Essay Discussion Paper

H.R.’s family pursues Progressive Christianity, which is the most liberal approach to the Christian tradition (McFarlan Miller, 2019). They believe a spiritual being in a progressive view, which is essential for being rooted in the unity of all life. They attend church every week, and H.R. socializes with other children of a similar age in the group. Based on their beliefs, the family seeks opportunities to imply their parenting philosophy on H.R.’s education, such as schooling. Thus, H.R. is planning to start kindergarten in a particular school in September.

One of the distinctive beliefs of H.R.’s family is a holistic approach to lifestyle. For instant, they seek vegan diets based on unprocessed foods and natural medicine, including opposition to vaccines and conventional medicine. Even though H.R.’s vaccination has been up to date, H.R.’s mother expressed her unfavorable feeling about vaccines, which is mandatory for all children to enter the school in New York City these days.

Genogram of H.R.’s Family

A proband is H.R., a three ½-year-old girl, who does not have any significant illness; she was born to her father, L., 45 years old, and her mother, R., 47 years old. Her father is a computer programmer and does not have particular health concerns. On the other hand, H.R.’s mother, R., who used to be a Pilates instructor until her pregnancy with H.R., was diagnosed with major depressive disorder years ago; she has been on antidepressants for a while. R. has been following up with a psychiatrist on a regular basis, and her mood has been under control. During the interview, R.’s present history of mental illness could not be specified because she was reluctant to reveal her detailed history while being around H.R.

In H.R.’s paternal lineage, she has two uncles, S., 52 years old, who has a medical history of herniated disc and obesity, and S., 48 years old, who has been diagnosed with hypertension and mild anxiety. Her first uncle has two children who are all grown up in their mid-’20s and the second uncle has only one child who is also in her ’20s. H.R.’s maternal family includes two uncles, S., 54 years old, who got divorced a while ago and has a couple of medical issues, such as mild anxiety and alcoholism, and I., 45 years old, who is healthy except for mild asthma, and has two children.

H.R.’s paternal grandparents, who were immigrants from China decades ago, live in Philadelphia. Her grandfather, L., 74 years old, has a present illness of heart disease and hyperlipidemia; her grandmother, C., 70 years old, has rheumatoid arthritis, but otherwise no other significant illnesses. H.R.’s maternal grandparents, who are Caucasian, are alive and currently reside in New Jersey. Her grandfather, R., 72 years old, is healthy except for the moderate condition of asthma; on the other hand, her grandmother, M., 71 years old, has a history of arthritis and depression.

Denver Developmental Screening on H.R.

The Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST) is a measuring tool of child development by screening cognitive and behavioral problems in children aged birth to 6 years (Dawson, 2018). Frankenburg et al. (1990) emphasized that the test is to identify developmental problems that should be evaluated, and not be used as a diagnostic tool (as cited in Dawson, 2018). The scale shows what percentages of a specific group of children are able to perform a particular task in a graphic form, such as 25%, 50%, 75%, and 90% of standardized sample passing percentage (UKEssays, 2018). The test measures four areas: Personal-Social contact, Fine motor skill, Language, and Gross motor skill, such as smiling, eye-hand coordination, understand and use of language, and motor control (UKEssay, 2018).


In the instance of H.R., her chronological age is three years, nine months, 19 days, which is calculated as the day of application of Denver screening minus her birthday (UKEssay, 2018). From the left of the line in the Denver screening chart, Personal-Social contact was measured by Clinical Theory Essay Discussion Paper

H.R.’s behaviors, such as washing and drying her hands independently, indicating that 90% of children can perform this task by three years old. Also, she barely needed help for brushing her teeth, and even she showed flossing her teeth by herself, which falls into the group of children between 50% and 75% by her age. For fine motor function-adaptive skill, H.R. demonstrated her drawing the outline of a circle while painting colors on her star fairy. She was also able to draw five parts of a person when she introduced her mother and father in her drawing. It suggests her fine motor skills are identified between 25% and 50% of children can perform those tasks by her age. In an aspect of her language, H.R. is able to speak 2-3 sentences that consist of more than five words in each sentence by using 3-4 adjectives and 2-3 prepositions when she was explaining particular objects and situations such as colors, favorite books, and activities, etc. Her speech is fairly understandable, and it indicates about 75% of children passing the task around her age in the scale. Lastly, H.R.’s gross motor skill was observed when she was playing with her dog. She was able to throw a ball overhead, chase her dog, broad jump to reach out something overhead, and hop several times, which shows about 50% or greater percentage of children can perform these tasks around her age. Overall, H.R.’s development in the four general functions demonstrates that she is in the normal developmental range and there are no concerns, such as falling behind in peer groups.

H.R.’s Development in the Theorists’ Views

In the first meeting with H.R., she was shy and not wanting to share her interests with a new situation or new people, which demonstrates that she initially needs her mother’s support to engage social contacts. According to Erik Erikson’s psychosocial development theory, human beings’ growth is created by social interactions and experiences throughout their life span; thus, personality development is evolved in sequential processes based on culture and society (Orenstein & Lewis, 2020). This framework’s main concept was divided into eight predetermined stages, showing an individual’s progression across the life cycle; each stage is affected by successful or unsuccessful completion, and positive and negative experiences of subsequent stages (Kaplan & Sadock, 2014). Orenstein and Lewis (2020), specifically, asserted that these stages are defined within the periods of childhood, adolescence, and adulthood as follows: Childhood- stage 1 through 4, which includes Trust vs. mistrust (birth to 18 months); Autonomy vs. shame and doubt (18 months to 3 years); Initiative vs. guilt (3 to 6 years); Industry vs. inferiority (6 to 12 years); Adolescence- stage 5, which indicates Identity vs. role confusion (12 to 20 years); Adulthood- stage 6 through 8, which provides Intimacy vs. isolation (20 to 35 years); Generativity vs. stagnation (35 to 65 years); and Integrity vs. despair (65 to death) Clinical Theory Essay Discussion Paper.

Erikson’s theory helps to understand H.R.’s shyness by explaining social-emotional development and interaction with the environment (Malik & Marwaha, 2020). In stage 1, a child begins with sensitive, cooperative interaction with the caregiver from infant age and progressively learns to manage tension in her environment, which is a process of personality development defined as temperament (Malik & Marwaha, 2020). Around 18 months to 3 years, autonomy emerges by confidence within the child and parents’ relationship; the feeling of security that actively helps the child involves environmental challenges (Malik & Marwaha, 2020). This positive impact leads to a flexible, friendly, or cooperative type of personality, as opposed to slow to warm up or cautious in negative situations (Malik & Marwaha, 2020).

Consistent parental bonding to the child plays an essential role in developing basic trust, as described in Erikson’s psychosocial development theory. Close interpersonal bonds to

proximity with the attachment figure, mainly a mother, allow a child to feel a secure environment that contributes to the child’s social, emotional, and cognitive development (McLeod, 2017). Specifically, the attachment theory was formulated by the belief about the connection between early infant separations from the mother and later maladjustment (McLeod, 2017). According to Stroebe (2019), Bowlby’s attachment theory suggests that the nature of the attachment to the primary caregiver and the sequential experience are roots of well-being in human growth; the first five years of life are especially crucial to socialization. In contrast, separations can be harmful and emotionally disturbing (Stroebe, 2019). There are four different stages of attachment in the theory, as follows: Pre-attachment (0-6 weeks), Attachment-in-making (6 weeks to 8 months), “Clear-cut” attachment (8-18 months), and Goal-corrected partnership (18 months and onwards) (Wilson-Ali et al., 2019).

In the instance of H.R., her mother revealed that H.R. has never slept well or napped since she was a baby. She has failed sleep training, and any particular trigger has not been recognized, according to H.R.’s mother. H.R.’s behaviors, such as not wanting to sleep alone and fear of separation from her mother, present a strong attachment to her mother emotionally and mutually, more than to any other family member. However, her interaction with her mother exhibits that she has developed a secure attachment pattern of behaviors in a positive way. One of the figures of attachment, “Clear-cut” attachment (8-18 months), is exemplified in this interaction, in which unhappiness arises when the child is separated from a special person. H.R. has been forming an attachment to only her mother, which is contributed to by intense sensitive responsiveness from her primary caregiver Clinical Theory Essay Discussion Paper.

H.R.’s behaviors, such as not wanting to sleep alone or being picky about foods and

refusing to eat certain vegetables, have been modified by reinforcement or punishment in her discipline. This behavioral learning process is understood in B.F. Skinner’s operant conditioning theory that human behaviors are constantly manifested by conditioning, such as rewards and punishment, which results in consequences of learned behaviors (Overskeid, 2018). Furthermore, this approach maintains that behavioral changes affect the construction of the personality, which is acquired, maintained, and altered by operational behaviors (Kaplan & Sadock, 2014). In particular, B.F. Skinner described that positive reinforcement leads to an increase of desired behaviors by reward; conversely, negative reinforcement, defined as punishment, is a stimulus to increase one’s intention to achieve the goal (McLeod, 2018). Like H.R.’s situation, she was given her favorite snacks as a positive reinforcement to gain her attention when she was willing to eat more vegetables in her meals.

Unlike traditional behavioral theory like Skinner’s, social learning theory maintains that human growth is affected by observational learning and modeling, which attributes cognitive development in a social setting (Horsburgh & Ippolito, 2018). It is emphasized that parents influence the development of an individual’s identity through the socialization process (Patock-Peckham et al., 2019). The example is reflected through H.R.’s learning process and interaction with her mother. H.R. was introduced to elimination communication and sign language by her mother since she was an infant. Through observing her mother, H.R. imitated gestures and understood the meaning of the signs. She initiated and created some of the signs with her mother and was engaged in better communication for her needs efficiently, promoting her interaction with others as well Clinical Theory Essay Discussion Paper.

According to Albert Bandura’s social learning theory, cognitive development is

influenced by environmental factors involved in the learning process, Attention, Retention, Reproduction, and Motivation, in relation to behaviors and their consequences (McLeod, 2016). Observational learning is an essential process for children surrounded by various influential models, such as parents, friends, teachers, other social media figures, etc. McLeod (2016) described that humans’ cognitive skills are learned by observing and imitating the behaviors of models, attitudes, emotional reactions of others, shaping, and vicarious reinforcement. It is highly important in understanding human learning to recognize the role of cognitive thoughts, called mediational processes (McLeod, 2016). In addition, these experiences play a significant role in enhancing self-efficacy toward positive behaviors, leading to better outcomes (Ren, 2019).

Adopting behaviors, values, and attitudes of a model, referred to as identification in Bandura’s theory, is similar to the concept of Freud’s Oedipus complex, except identity occurred with only the same-sex parent (McLeod, 2016). Freud’s psychosexual stages of development describe that human beings’ maturation is established through five stages, from infancy to adulthood, in sequential progress (Lantz & Ray, 2021). Freud, especially, emphasized the importance of a child’s relationship with parents and other significant ones during the first five years of childhood in personality development (Kaplan & Sadock, 2014). The five stages of psychosexual development are as follows:  Oral (0-1 yr) stage satisfied by the oral needs, which is for trust development in the environment; Anal (1-3 yr) stage satisfied by the anal region for a sense of control development; Phallic (3-6 yr) stage fulfilled by genitalia that indicates an awareness of anatomical sexual differences and the process of identification with the same-sex parent; Latency (6-12 yr) stage focused on expanding new skills and socialization with same-gender peers; Genital (12 yr and beyond) stage in which one desires development of a relationship in heterosexual pleasure and loving emotion (Kaplan & Sadock, 2014; Lantz & Ray, 2021)Clinical Theory Essay Discussion Paper.

H.R. exhibited her behaviors by copying, imitating, and joining in her mother-type person. Likewise, a boy tends to attach to his mother, while a girl tends to attach to her father; H.R. adopted the characteristics of the same gender role. It is called identification, which begins with sexual curiosity and realizing sexual differences (Kaplan & Sadock, 2014). Eventually, this stage is to achieve awareness of sexuality.

Along with physical and social learning in human growth, Jean Piaget highlighted, especially, cognitive progression, which plays an essential part in understanding intellectual abilities. It is divided into four different stages based on a child’s way of viewing and thinking: Sensorimotor stage (birth to 2 years), Preoperational stage (2 to 7 years), Concrete operational stage (7 to 11 years), and Formal operational stage (11 years to adult) (Marwaha et al., 2017). Piaget’s theory of cognitive development explains that children’s thought processes are constructed by learning through clarifying ideas, organizing knowledge, solving problems, and making decisions; wherein the way of thinking, called mental operation, can construct the intelligence in each stage appropriately (Dzainudin et al., 2018). For instance, H.R. learned objects and understood a certain concept in a visualized way, referred to as the Preoperational stage (2 to 7 years). She emphasized how tall her puppy is compared to her body, and her thought has not been processed in a generalized concept of the object. Yet, she is unable to conserve and understand the absence of specific objects such as numbers, mass, or volume. A way of taking a point of view about big and small or old and young is still limited in logical thinking in this stage.

Based on the concept of Piaget’s cognitive development, Lawrence Kohlberg integrated moral development in an expanded view of human growth in a rational process, called moral judgement, which is established by making decisions about doing wrongful and rightful things under different circumstances (Francia, 2018). Kohlberg (1964, 1968) believed that the cognitive stage is constructed through solving moral conflicts as moral reasoning supports establishing actions for progression from simply right or wrong to a more complex decision-making process in different points of view (as cited in Francia, 2018). Moral development is framed into three major levels of morality, with each level split into two substages: Preconventional morality as the first level, including punishment and obedience, furthermore focused on self-interest and reward; Conventional morality as the second level, including role-conformity to maintain good relationships and social orders; and Postconventional morality as the highest level, including human rights for all decisions in advance to universal ethics (Kaplan & Sadock, 2014).

Like preschoolers simply follow the rules set by their parents (Kaplan & Sadock, 2014), preconventional morality is exemplified in H.R.’s interaction. H.R. has fully engaged in her relationship with her mother, who has more authority to set up the rules. When H.R. was exposed to gentle discipline by her mother, she expressed her understanding by nodding and accepting her aggressive behaviors that were shaped as a wrong action that needs to be corrected to get better rewards.


The development of human beings is sophisticated, and the deep thoughts about H.R.’s development were viewed in seven different theories. In looking at H.R.’s development from seven different perspectives, it is a given opportunity to understand how human beings’ growth is interconnected. Furthermore, the importance of viewing nurturing and nourishing from different angles based on cultural beliefs, values, and philosophy is illuminated. Perhaps, a more holistic approach to H.R.’s development would involve culturing depth of mind, emotions, characters, values, and being from a spiritual perspective, emphasized by H.R.’s mother.

In addition, H.R.’s parents’ view on mental health is shown in its significance to prevent H.R. from any mental illness by culturing depth of emotion and happiness. As they believe, psychological development is rooted in a principle of mind and emotional stability, they are more open to preventive strategies in nurturing H.R., such as family stability, positive parenting, resilience, and depth of being. As H.R.’s mother has a history of depression and has been stable by use of interventions such as medicines and therapy, she is sensitive about preventing mental health illness and being open-minded to seeking help if necessary. Besides, H.R.’s parents are willing to engage in taking protective measures to construct resilience in H.R.’s development by providing supports such as gentle parenting, elimination communication and sign languages, a sense of being loved by family, and positive self-esteem, etc. Clinical Theory Essay Discussion Paper


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