Posted: January 17th, 2023
Diabetes and Drug Treatments Essay
Assignment: Diabetes and Drug Treatments Diabetes is an endocrine system disorder that affects millions of children and adults (ADA, 2011). If left untreated, diabetic patients are at risk for several alterations including heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, neuropathy, and blindness. There are various methods for treating diabetes, many of which include some form of drug therapy. The type of diabetes as well as the patient’s behavior factors will impact treatment recommendations. In this Assignment, you compare types of diabetes including drug treatments for type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes. To prepare: • Review this week’s media presentation on the endocrine system and diabetes, as well as Chapter 46 of the Arcangelo and Peterson text and the Peterson et al. article in the Learning Resources. • Reflect on differences between types of diabetes including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes. • Select one type of diabetes. • Consider one type of drug used to treat the type of diabetes you selected including proper preparation and administration of this drug. Then, reflect on dietary considerations related to treatment. Diabetes and Drug Treatments Essay. • Think about the short-term and long-term impact of the diabetes you selected on patients including effects of drug treatments. By Day 7 Write a 2- to 3- page paper that addresses the following: • Explain the differences between types of diabetes including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes. • Describe one type of drug used to treat the type of diabetes you selected including proper preparation and administration of this drug. Include dietary considerations related to treatment. • Explain the short-term and long-term impact of this diabetes on patients including effects of drugs treatments. Reminder: The School of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The Sample Paper provided at the Walden Writing Center provides an example of those required elements (available at http://writingcenter.waldenu.edu/57.htm). All papers submitted must use this formatting. Submission and Grading Information Grading Criteria To access your rubric: Week 6 Assignment Rubric Check Your Assignment Draft for Authenticity ASSIGNMENT REQUIRED COURSE RESOURCES (MUST use 2-3 required course resources PLUS 2 credible outside resources). Diabetes and Drug Treatments Essay. Arcangelo, V. P., Peterson, A. M., Wilbur, V., & Reinhold, J. A. (Eds.). (2017). Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice: A practical approach (4th ed.). Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. • Chapter 36, “Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis” (pp. 591-609) This chapter examines the causes, pathophysiology, and diagnostic criteria of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. It then outlines the process of selecting, administering, and managing drug therapy for both disorders. • Chapter 46, “Diabetes Mellitus” (pp. 785-806) This chapter begins by identifying the causes, pathophysiology, and diagnostic criteria of diabetes mellitus. It then examines the process of selecting, administering, and managing drug therapy for patients with diabetes mellitus. • Chapter 47, “Thyroid Disorders” (pp. 809-822) This chapter explores the causes, pathophysiology, diagnostic criteria, and administration of drug therapy for patients with thyroid disorders, including hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, thyroid nodules, subclinical thyroid disease, and thyroiditis. It also discusses the mechanisms of prescribed drugs, as well as proper dosages and potential adverse reactions. English, C. & Aloi, J.J. (2015). New FDA-Approved Disease-Modifying Therapies for Multiple Sclerosis. Clinical Therapeutics. 37(4). 691-715 Note: Retrieved from the Walden Library databases. This article covers new FDA approved medications for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Kargiotis, O., Paschali, A., Messinis, L., & Papathanasopoulos, P. (2010). Quality of life in multiple sclerosis: Effects of current treatment options. International Review of Psychiatry, 22(1), 67–82. Note: Retrieved from the Walden Library databases. Diabetes and Drug Treatments Essay. This article examines the process of evaluating and diagnosing patients who present with symptoms of multiple sclerosis and explores treatment and rehabilitation methods. Document: American Diabetes Association. (2018). Pharmacologic Approaches to Glycemic Treatment: Standards of medical care in diabetes—2018. Diabetes Care, 41(Supplement 1), S73-S85. Retrieved from http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/41/supplement_1/s73.full-text.pdf Required Media Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2012). The endocrine system and diabetes. Baltimore, MD: Author. This media presentation explores the endocrine system and diabetes including diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 5 minutes. Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2012). Advanced pharmacology – Mid-course review. Baltimore, MD: Author. This media is an interactive mid-course review covering course content. Diabetes and Drug Treatments Essay
Diabetes refers to a chronic condition which is primarily characterized by persistent hyperglycemia due to insulin defects. Persistent hyperglycemia has been linked to organ dysfunction, organ damage and organ failure. This paper discusses the differences between different types of diabetes and the drugs used in the management of type 1 DM. A description of the short-term and log-term impacts of DM and the impacts of drugs will also be provided.
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Differences between Different Types of Diabetes
Type 1 DM occurs when the body’s immunity attacks the pancreatic beta cells which produce insulin. As a result, insulin becomes totally absent making the body unable to regulate the level of glucose in blood making one to totally rely on insulin injection since childhood. It is for this reason that it is also referred to as IDDM (Zaccardi et al., 2016). The symptoms of type 1diabetes mellitus include: frequent urination, thirst, polydipsia, high blood glucose and weight loss. Major complications of type 1 DM include: renal failure, ketoacidosis and diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes and Drug Treatments Essay
In contrast, type 2 DM occurs either due to the inability of pancreatic cells to produce enough insulin or increased sensitivity of the body to insulin. Since it begins later in life and individuals tend not to be completely dependent on insulin, it is also referred to as adult onset DM or NIDDM (Zaccardi et al., 2016). Its signs and symptoms include: polyuria, polyphagia, polydipsia, chronic sores and general body malaise. Long term impacts include: diabetic nephropathy, diabetic retinopathy, hypertension and atherosclerosis.
On the other hand, gestational diabetes is predominantly experienced by women during pregnancy and those diagnosed are at high risk of developing adult onset diabetes mellitus after birth. However in most cases, the disorder ceases to exist immediately after birth. When not promptly detected, it can result to complications for both the fetus and the baby such as: macrosomia, polyhydromnoius, premature or still birth and even preeclampsia (Baynes, 2015).
Lastly, juvenile diabetes primarily affects the young population of individuals aged 16-25 years old. It is worth knowing that insulin dependent diabetes mellitus is considered to be juvenile diabetes since it tends to affect 95% of those who are young (Baynes, 2015). Besides, the clinical manifestations of juvenile diabetes are similar to that of IDDM. Diabetes and Drug Treatments Essay
Medications Used In The Management of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, Preparation, Administration and Dietary Guidelines associated with Treatment
For the purpose of this assignment, type 1 diabetes mellitus has been chosen. It is managed with insulin injections and patients are also expected to observe specific dietary guidelines in order to regulate the blood glucose. The most challenging issue in the management of type 1 DM is striking a balance between hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia (Chamberlain et al, 2016). Insulin is usually administered subcutaneously as an injection and a patient should ensure to use the right syringe and amount usually U-100. However, insulin is also available in other concentrations such as; U-300 and U-500. Clients are also advised not to dilute concentrated insulin with other insulin forms (Fullerton et al., (2016). During administration, the skin should be pinched and the needle placed at either 450 or 900 and slowly injected. People with type 1 diabetes mellitus are expected to take fewer meals of saturated fats and a lot of meals rich in unsaturated fats such as omega 3.
Short and Long-term Effects of Type And Medications Effects
In the long term, persistent hyperglycemia experienced in type 1 DM can damage small and large blood vessels leading to both macrovascular and microvascular complications. Some of the microvascular complications are related to damage to the eye, nerves and the kidney leading to cataracts, diabetic foot and kidney failure respectively (Katsarou et al., 2017). Macrovascular complications lead to damage of the heart, brain and blood vessels potentially resulting to hypertension, stroke, peripheral vascular disease and heart attack. The most common side effects of insulin include: headaches, anxiety, bumps and swellings on the injection sites, headaches, hypoglycemia and weight gain as the body begins adjusting to therapy (Fullerton et al., (2016). Diabetes and Drug Treatments Essay
Baynes, H. W. (2015). Classification, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of diabetes mellitus. J diabetes metab, 6(5), 1-9.
Chamberlain, J. J., Rhinehart, A. S., Shaefer, C. F., & Neuman, A. (2016). Diagnosis and management of diabetes: synopsis of the 2016 American Diabetes Association Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes. Annals of internal medicine, 164(8), 542-552.
Fullerton, B., Siebenhofer, A., Jeitler, K., Horvath, K., Semlitsch, T., Berghold, A., & Gerlach, F. M. (2016). Short‐acting insulin analogues versus regular human insulin for adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (6).
Katsarou, A., Gudbjörnsdottir, S., Rawshani, A., Dabelea, D., Bonifacio, E., Anderson, B. J., & Lernmark, Å. (2017). Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Nature reviews Disease primers, 3, 17016.
Zaccardi, F., Webb, D. R., Yates, T., & Davies, M. J. (2016). Pathophysiology of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus: a 90-year perspective. Postgraduate medical journal, 92(1084), 63-69.Diabetes and Drug Treatments Essay
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