Environmental Ethicsa Essay.

Posted: November 23rd, 2022

Environmental Ethicsa Essay.


Animal research plays an important role in medical and scientific advances. Nevertheless, the use of animals in medical and scientific research has had ethical dilemmas, where opponents argue that animal testing is cruel and unnecessary, irrespective of the benefits and purposes of animal testing (Akhtar, 2015). On the other hand, proponents of animal testing argue that animal testing comes with innumerable benefits in regard to generating data useful in the treatment of human diseases.Environmental Ethicsa Essay.


This essay will apply utilitarianism theory to support the position that animal testing is ethical.
According to the utilitarianism theory, an action is ethically right if the action is beneficial to the highest number of people with the highest good (Stone, 018). Animal testing has facilitated many advances that have led to important landmarks in health and saving many lives. For example, vaccinations against killer diseases such as polio and rubella were developed after animal testing. These vaccinations have saved innumerable millions of human lives (Khoo, 2018). Similarly, medical technologies such as chemotherapy medications, surgical technologies, and medical scans were initially tested on animals. These medical technologies have been so beneficial to millions of human beings. For example, cardiopulmonary bypass was tested on numerous animals and led to the success of open-heart surgery that has had enormous benefits. Finally, many products are tested in animals to ascertain their safety on human beings (Khoo, 2018).Environmental Ethicsa Essay.
Nonetheless, animals also have moral value and right to no suffering just like human beings. Therefore, animal testing deprives animals of their moral value and at the same time causes enormous suffering and pain to the animals (Akhtar, 2015).
However, as per the utilitarianism theory, it is clear animal testing is beneficial to the highest number of people with the highest good because millions of human lives are saved. Therefore, animal testing is ethically and morally correct.Environmental Ethicsa Essay.
Utilitarianism Ethical egoism Ethics of care Kantianism Prima facie duties Divine command theory Virtue theory
How is “good” determined Based on outcomes and consequences. Based on self-interest. Based on interpersonal relationships and benevolence. Based on principle and intrinsic good regardless of desires and interests. Based on first perspective or idea that is considered accurate unless proven otherwise. Based on what God commands as good. Based on utilitarianism.
Most noted philosophers Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill, and Henry Sidgwick. Macaulay (British Victorian historian), Thomas Hobbes (British Reformation political philosopher, David Hume, and Ayn Rand. Carol Gilligan. Immanuel Kant William David Ross, and Robert Audi. Robert Merrihew Adams, Paul Copan, and Linda TrinkausZagzebski. Aristotle
Major strengths Looks at the greatest good and happiness.
Easy to use.
Applies a logical, objective and democratic approach. Promotes personal identity.
Sustainable through meeting personal needs. Maintains and harmonized human relationships.
Replaces rights of individuals with conflicts of responsibility to others.
It focuses on us rather than me and you. Human autonomy.
Universal and rational. Considers the action and consequences.
Inspire ethical action while disciplining violations. Objective and metaphysical.
Absolute rules.
Eliminates human responsibility. Aligns with character traits.
Holistic and broad.
Centered on the agent.
Encourages sense of community.
Preserves goodness.Environmental Ethicsa Essay.
Major weaknesses Tyranny of majority and ignores the minority.
Subjective since there are different definitions of happiness and good.
Ignores the act but looks at the consequences, such as killing one to save ten.
It is unpredictable. Strains relationships.
Eliminates objectivity. Subjective since it devolves into tribalism and other relationships. Consequentialist.
Categorical imperatives.
Dispassionate approach.
Incapable of coping with competing duties.
Allows for retribution. General and vague.
Unhelpful if two or more rules are in conflict.
Inconsistencies between rules.
Self-serving. Euthyphro dilemma with questions about arbitrariness.
Arbitrary and not standard as it is based on God’s whim.
Religious pluralism present concerns over which divine being is right.
Conflict with changing environmental needs, especially in modern times.
Deontological and absolute. No focus.Environmental Ethicsa Essay.
Difficult to determine nature of virtue.
Limited view.

Environmental Ethicsa Essay.

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