Evidence Based in Design.

Posted: December 5th, 2022

Evidence Based in Design.


When politics and medical science intersect, there can be much debate. Sometimes anecdotes or hearsay are misused as evidence to support a particular point. Despite these and other challenges, however, evidence-based approaches are increasingly used to inform health policy decision-making regarding causes of disease, intervention strategies, and issues impacting society. One example is the introduction of childhood vaccinations and the use of evidence-based arguments surrounding their safety. In this Discussion, you will identify a recently proposed health policy and share your analysis of the evidence in support of this policy. To Prepare: • Review the Congress website provided in the Resources and identify one recent (within the past 5 years) proposed health policy. • Review the health policy you identified and reflect on the background and development of this health policy. By Day 3 of Week 7 Post a description of the health policy you selected and a brief background for the problem or issue being addressed. Explain whether you believe there is an evidence base to support the proposed policy and explain why. Be specific and provide examples. Evidence Based in Design.

Evidence Based in Design


A Description of the Healthy policy

Childhood vaccination is an effective public health intervention for the prevention and control of diseases.  Nevertheless, some parents delay or refuse to immunize their children because of religious, medical or philosophical reasons (Ventola, 2016). The Vaccinate All Children Act of 2019 is a health care policy aimed at ensuring that all school attending children are vaccinated if they are medically fit to receive a vaccination. The   Vaccinate All Children Act introduces a federal requirement on states not to provide vaccine exemptions only for medical reasons and not for personal or religious reasons. Ventola (2016) indicates that at the moment all the fifty states require vaccinations for school-attending children. Nevertheless, some states offer vaccination exemptions for personal or religious reasons. Only five states presently permit no exemption apart from medical reasons.  Evidence Based in Design.

Background of the issue being addressed

Vaccination is mandatory for children who are of school age in United States. Nevertheless, there has been an increasing fear among public health officials of the parents’ choice claiming exclusions from requirements for immunization of children and infants. Due to outbreaks of illnesses that can be prevented through vaccination, there has been increased attention on vaccine hesitancy making some state lawmakers pass novel laws on vaccine exemption. Presently, exemptions are permitted because of medical reasons all states and the District of Columbia, philosophical objections in 20 states and religious beliefs in 48 states. It has been approximated that one to three percent is excused from vaccinations due to these exemptions, but there are higher rates as twenty percent in some communities. Even when there is a low fraction of children who have been exempted from immunization, there is an increased risk of outbreaks of diseases in schools with low exemption rates (Ventola, 2016). As Sinclair et al (2019) indicate, learning institutions with a huge number of pupils who have been excused from immunization offer environments in which infectious diseases are spread amongst vulnerable pupils with low immunity and to the community. Evidence Based in Design.

An evidence base to support the health policy

I believe there an evidence base to support the Vaccine All Children Act of 2019. Studies have demonstrated that vaccine rejection has been connected with outbreaks of communicable diseases, including varicella, Heamophilus influenza type b, pertussis, measles, and pneumococcal disease. Phadke et al (2016) allege that there is a direct link between vaccine refusal and parental claiming of nonmedical exemptions to requirements for immunization of school-going children. For example, a measles outbreak in 2014 that had its origins from California highlights vaccine rejection and associated illness outbreaks. Evidence Based in Design.

Several studies have revealed connections between those levels of nonmedical exclusions and the risk of being infected with the vaccine-preventable illness. Children with exemptions from vaccinations have a substantially higher risk of contracting measles compared to children who have been vaccinated while states, communities, and schools with high rates of exemptions have a greater level of pertussis infections, including among population that is fully vaccinated (Phadke et al, 2016). For example, health care providers in southern Pennsylvania have regularly expressed frustrations with mortality and morbidity from preventable communicable illnesses that are traced to decisions of numerous Amish parents vaccination refusal for their children. This evidence supports the vaccine All Children Act of 2019 because it demonstrates that children who are exempted from vaccination for personal or religious reasons are at contracting infectious diseases. Evidence Based in Design.

Some parents knowingly decide not to take their children for immunization because they question the safety of vaccines. According to Ventola (2016), the majority of parents regard vaccines to cause autumns and/ or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Some parents have claimed that the MMR vaccine can cause autism. However, studies have refuted these claims. Several studies have utilized diverse methodologies to examine the connection between childhood vaccines and the inception of autism. Yet, no single study has demonstrated a causal connection between vaccines and autism. Evidence Based in Design.


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