Posted: November 9th, 2022
Identify the Pathophysiological Mechanisms of Chronic Asthma.
Review “Asthma” in Chapter 27 of the Huether and McCance text. Identify the pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic asthma and acute asthma exacerbation. Consider how these disorders are similar and different.Identify the Pathophysiological Mechanisms of Chronic Asthma
Select a patient factor different from the one you selected in this week’s Discussion: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior.
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Think about how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of both disorders. Reflect on how you would diagnose and prescribe treatment of these disorders for a patient based on the factor you selected.
Review the “Mind maps—Dementia, Endocarditis, and Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)” media in the Week 2 Learning Resources. Use the examples in the media as a guide to construct two mind maps—one for chronic asthma and one for acute asthma exacerbation. Consider the epidemiology and clinical presentation of both chronic asthma and acute asthma exacerbation.Identify the Pathophysiological Mechanisms of Chronic Asthma
Write a 2- to 3-page paper that addresses the following:
Describe the pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic asthma and acute asthma exacerbation. Be sure to explain the changes in the arterial blood gas patterns during an exacerbation.
Explain how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of both disorders. Describe how you would diagnose and prescribe treatment for a patient based on the factor you selected.
Construct two mind maps—one for chronic asthma and one for acute asthma exacerbation. Include the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation, as well as the diagnosis and treatment you explained in your paper.
One of the most common chronic respiratory diseases in the contemporary society is asthma. It affects millions of people globally and hence is a major health concern. The chronic disorder is characterized by obstruction of the airways which affects the flow of air in the respiratory system caused by the presence of inflammations.Identify the Pathophysiological Mechanisms of Chronic Asthma This results in coughs, tightness of the chest, wheezes, bronchospasm and shortness of breath (Barnes, 2008). The prevalence increases with crowding and thus, the homeless children and those living in clouded places are more vulnerable to asthma infection. Air pollution is also a significant factor in the spread of asthma and particularly with toxins and fumes. Depending on its presentation, asthma can either be classified as chronic, with long-developing syndromes, or acute whereby sudden and sever attacks occur.
Pathophysiology of acute and chronic asthma is almost similar. Both infections alter the respiratory system causing intermittent obstruction of the airways and flow of air. It is also characterized by the inflammation of airways and hyperactive responses of the bronchial system (Huether&McCance, 2012). Periodic inflammation of the trachea may also take place.Identify the Pathophysiological Mechanisms of Chronic Asthma The onset of asthma is triggered by substances or environmental factors that cause reactions known as exacerbations. The severe inflammation of the airways results in breathing problems that could cause sudden death of the patient especially in acute asthma cases.
Acute asthma and chronic asthma present varying changes in arterial blood gas patterns during an exacerbation. During severe or moderate bronchospasm in acute asthma, a slight reduction in arterial carbon dioxide pressure is seen in the arterial blood gas levels. No abnormal saturation of oxygen in the arteries takes place even though metabolic acidosis is demonstrated in patients with severe conditions. in chronic asthma, moderate alkalosis and hypoxemia occurs due to increased carbon dioxide in severe cases as well as during attacks caused by increased obstruction of the airway.Identify the Pathophysiological Mechanisms of Chronic Asthma
Chronic asthma and acute asthma pathophysiology is influenced by multiple factors including genetics. According to Subbarao, Mandhane and Sears (2009), twin and family studies have demonstrated the role of genetics in the development of allergies and asthma. At least 18 genomic regions are associated with genes that influence asthma which are replicated consistently to facilitate heredity. ORMDL3, a recently discovered gene has indicated an increased association with asthma. The replication of these genes in multiple populations increases the spread and prevalence of asthma in related individuals. Previous studies have also reported that three-fifths of the asthma cases are hereditary owing to the inherited genetic makeup.
The diagnosis of acute and chronic asthma is based on the patient’s medical history and physical examination. Lung function tests such as methacholine and spirometry challenge tests are conducted to determine the respiratory problems (Ripabelli et al., 2013). Other tests include sinus X-ray. These tests determine the extent of the airway obstruction through the measurement of how much the patient can exhale air from the lungs. Consequently, the treatment of acute and chronic asthma can be treated using bronchodilators. These are quick-relies inhalers that open up the airways quickly in the event of inflammations which prevent the smooth flow of air. Chronic asthma is managed using long-term asthma control drugs which can be supported by the use of anti-allergens which prevent asthmatic triggers. The diseases are incurable even though effective control is achievable.Identify the Pathophysiological Mechanisms of Chronic Asthma
Huether, S. E., &McCance, K. L. (2012).Understanding pathophysiology (Laureate custom edition). St Louis MO: Mosby.
Subbarao, P., Mandhane, P. J., & Sears, M. R. (2009). Asthma: epidemiology, etiology and risk factors. Cmaj, 181(9), E181-E190.
Ripabelli, G., Tamburro, M., Sammarco, M. L., de Laurentiis, G., & Bianco, A. (2013). Asthma prevalence and risk factors among children and adolescents living around an industrial area: a cross-sectional study. BMC public health, 13(1), 1038.
Barnes, P. J. (2008). Immunology of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Nature Reviews Immunology, 8(3), 183-192.Identify the Pathophysiological Mechanisms of Chronic Asthma
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