Nursing Pathophysiology Essay Assignment Discussion Paper

Posted: November 5th, 2022

Nursing Pathophysiology Essay Assignment Discussion Paper


Neurotransmitters are the main way through which the brain communicates. One nerve (neuron) communicates with another, instructing the other on what to do. According to studies, psychiatric diseases are considered to be caused by an imbalance or an inadequate amount of particular neurotransmitters in the brain. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the neurotransmitter(s) that have been implicated in anxiety, stress disorder (PTSD), post-traumatic and obsessive-compulsive disorder, and biological pathology underlying each of these conditions Nursing Pathophysiology Essay Assignment Discussion Paper.


Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that is often associated with feelings of anxiety. Serotonin is particularly well-known for its potential to have an impact on one’s mood, appetite, and sleep habits (Kaur & Singh, 2017). Serotonin is produced by the pineal gland in the brain. Those who suffer from anxiety disorders are considered to be carrying lower quantities of serotonin in their body. As a result, Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) are often prescribed medications for the treatment of anxiety disorders (SSRIs). They operate by raising the quantity of serotonin in the body. In addition to serotonin, GABA, commonly known as gamma-aminobutyric acid, has been proven to be connected with anxiety (Kaur & Singh, 2017). GABA has been shown to have a calming effect on the brain by decreasing neuronal transmission. Consequently, the body is relieved of stress. People who suffer from severe anxiety may be having a GABA deficiency.  Personality, brain chemistry, and genetics are the biological factors that could play a role in causing anxiety Nursing Pathophysiology Essay Assignment Discussion Paper.

The abnormal control of catecholamine, serotonin, peptide,  amino acid, and opioid neurotransmitters, all of which are located in brain circuits that control and integrate stress and anxiety responses, are the core neurochemical aspects of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Catecholamine is an organic chemical that contains a catechol component, and it is responsible for helping the body adapt to stress and prepare for a fight or flight response when it is needed. The catecholamines, or the catecholamine family of neurotransmitters, which includes norepinephrine (NE), and dopamine (DA) are produced from the amino acid tyrosine. As catecholamines are related to stress, an elevation in catecholamines may be characterized by symptoms such as furious outbursts and a constant feeling of being on edge.  Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that plays a role in the regulation of sleep, hunger, aggression/impulsivity, motor function, neuroendocrine function, analgesia, and sexual behavior (Jones et al., 2020). Certain post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) behaviors such as impulsivity, anger, violence, depression, and suicidal behavior are associated with the neurotransmitter serotonin.  Serotonin and catecholamine dysregulation, on the other hand, are also reported in clients who have been diagnosed with Traumatic Brain Injury (Jones et al., 2020) Nursing Pathophysiology Essay Assignment Discussion Paper.

Obsessive obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is connected with anomalies in the cortico-striatal–thalamocortical (CSTC) circuitry, and it may also be linked to the imbalance of neurotransmitters in this system. There are many neurotransmitters that are important in the CSTC, including serotonin, dopamine, glutamate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) (Pittenger, 2017). It is hypothesized that the neurotransmitter paradigm of OCD is characterized by increased dopaminergic and glutamatergic function in frontostriatal networks, as well as decreased serotonergic and GABAergic neurotransmission in frontolimbic pathways (Pittenger, 2017). Such neurotransmitter abnormalities may be responsible for frontostriatal hyperactivity as well as decreased frontolimbic emotion control. The advancement of our knowledge of neurotransmitter anomalies in OCD, as well as the relationship between anomalies in distinct transmitter systems, offers the possibility for the invention of novel pharmacotherapies Nursing Pathophysiology Essay Assignment Discussion Paper.


Jones, L. A., Sun, E. W., Martin, A. M., & Keating, D. J. (2020). The ever-changing roles of serotonin. The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology, 125, 105776.

Kaur, S., & Singh, R. (2017). Role of different neurotransmitters in anxiety: a systemic review. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 8(2), 411.

Pittenger, C. (Ed.). (2017). Obsessive-compulsive disorder: phenomenology, pathophysiology, and treatment. Oxford University Press. Nursing Pathophysiology Essay Assignment Discussion Paper

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