Pathophysiology and Pharmacology8.

Posted: November 3rd, 2022

Pathophysiology and Pharmacology8.


DQ 8.1
Type 2 diabetes mellitus, also known as late onset diabetes mellitus or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is an endocrine disorder which is primarily characterized by resistance to insulin, high blood glucose and lack of insulin. It is worth noting that type 2 DM comprises 90%of all diabetes cases. Most patients with type 2 DM usually present with the classic symptoms of polyphagia, polyuria and polydipsia (Chatterjee, Khunti & Davies, 2017).


Its occurrence has been associated with lack of physical activity and obesity while others tend to be genetically at risk.Pathophysiology and Pharmacology8.
The pathophysiological changes in type 2 DM starts as a result of insulin insufficiency when insulin resistance sets in within the fat tissues, the muscles and the liver. Insulin resistance may develop from increased lipid breakdown within fat cells, from high levels of glucagon in blood or retention of water and salt by the kidneys (Chatterjee, Khunti & Davies, 2017). It is worth noting that the dysfunction of beta cells versus resistance to insulin varies from one person to another such that, while others may primarily have insulin resistance and slight insulin secretion defects, others may have some slight insulin resistance and a primary lack insulin secretion (DeFronzo et al., 2015). Normally in the liver, the release of glucose is suppressed by insulin. However, when resistance to insulin gradually sets in, glucose is inappropriately released to blood resulting to high blood glucose levels which develops to diabetes.
The proper patient education for patients with type 2 DM is lifestyle modification to reduce the risk of short term and long term complications. In this case lifestyle modification includes engaging in regular physical exercise to lose weight. It also includes dietary modification with diets rich in green leafy vegetables and limited sugary intake(DeFronzo et al., 2015)These modifications have proved to be highly effective than medications alone when it comes to the management of type 2 DM.Pathophysiology and Pharmacology8.
DQ 8.2
An evidence-based medication used in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus is metformin. It is used alongside lifestyle interventions such as exercise and diet to control high blood glucose levels in order to prevent renal failure, blindness, stroke and possibly heart failure. It is basically used to reduce the absorption of glucose in the GI, to decrease the production of glucose in the hepatic system and increase the sensitivity of insulin within cells (Rena, Hardie & Pearson, 2017).Pathophysiology and Pharmacology8.
It is an extended release tablet taken in oral form and metformin works by improving the tolerance of glucose in patients with type 2DM and reducing postprandial and basal plasma glucose. Its mode of action totally differs from other oral anti-hyperglycemic agents since it works by reducing the production of hepatic glucose, the intestinal glucose absorption of and the sensitivity of insulin (Rena, Hardie & Pearson, 2017). It does so by increasing the uptake and utilization of peripheral glucose. Commonly, its major side effect is gastric irritation producing the symptoms of: abdominal pain, diarrhoea and nausea. More serious side effects that should keenly be watched out for include: lactic acidosis, hypoxia and liver impairment (Rena, Hardie & Pearson, 2017).Pathophysiology and Pharmacology8.
During treatment, patients are highly recommended to avoid taking alcohol since it accelerates the effect of metformin on lactate metabolism. The hepatic and renal systems are also monitored for possible impaired function since this may affect efficiency and effectiveness of its bioavailability. It is also important to note that, in case of deficiency in the intake of calories, alcohol intoxication, pituitary and adrenal insufficiency when taking metformin, hypoglycemia can potentially occur (Rena, Hardie & Pearson, 2017). Metformin interacts with digoxin, furosemide, cimetidine, ranitidine, trimethoprim and morphine to increase the risk of hypoglycemia.

DQ 8.1
Choose a medical condition from the endocrine system and explain the pathophysiology changes that may occur. What patient education would need to be included related to this disorder? Choose a medical condition different from that of your fellow students.
DQ 8.2
Select a medication used in evidence-based treatment guidelines for the condition chosen in the first discussion question. Share the mechanism of action of this medication and hints for monitoring, side effects, and drug interactions of which one should be aware. Make sure that you select a different medication than your peers. Include the name of the medication in the subject line so that the medications can be followed. Include your references in APA style.Pathophysiology and Pharmacology8.

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