Pathophysiology and PharmacologyPP.

Posted: December 16th, 2022

Pathophysiology and PharmacologyPP.


Create a 7-8 slide presentation with speaker notes about a selected disease process and drug class. The presentation should provide content specific information on the selected disease process and drug class for staff or students in a clinical environment.


Follow these steps:
1.Select a disease process and a drug class used to treat the disease process.
2.Describe pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the drug related to the pathophysiology of the disease process.
3.Describe the product, its intended use, side effects, adverse reactions, and safety issues.Pathophysiology and PharmacologyPP.
4.Identify ethnic, cultural, and genetic differences in patients that may affect the safety or efficacy of medications.
5.How would you monitor the desired effect is achieved?
Be sure to include three to five references.
While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.Pathophysiology and PharmacologyPP.

Pathophysiology and Pharmacology PP
Disease Process
According to cancer development theory, it originates from a single body cell.
Disease process involves abnormal division and growth of the cell in the origin organ.
A localized tumor develops.
Spread of cells occurs to adjacent tissues, lymph nodes and distant structures.
Metastatic tumors develop.
Cancer can spread directly to other body parts though the bloodstream.
The first indication of cancer is the development of small tumors to metastasis (Basch et al, 2016).Pathophysiology and PharmacologyPP.
Drug Class
Anticancer drugs are used in chemotherapy.
Alkylating agents class include: busulfan, thiotepa, cyclophosphamide, chlorambucil (Nerini et al., 2016)
They are cell cycle phase nonspecific.
They act directly on DNA by:
Preventing cell division
Breaking the DNA strands
Causing abnormal base pairing
causing cross-linking of DNA strands
They kill the cell in various and multiple phases of the cell cycle.
Prevents cancer cells division through direct damage of the DNA.
Bifunctional nitrogen mustard moiety bind to nucleophilic compound initiating action
React with guanine residues in DNA to produce cross-linking action of DNA strands (Nerini et al., 2016)
Cross-linking breaks the sequence of DNA and causes death of cancerous cells


Typically administered intravenously
Can be given orally
Conversion to a strong electrophile can be:
Virtually instantaneous activation upon water contact e.g. Mechlorethamine (Nerini et al., 2016)
Oral medication is activated in various tissues e.g. busulfan
Lack of pharmacodynamics information is currently limiting the application of pharmacokinetic information to cancer therapy
Cell cycle non-specific alkylating antineoplastic agent, in the class of alkyl sulfonates (Russi & Negrin, 2015).
Cancer treatment
Combined with cyclophosphamide as a conditioning regimen (Russi & Negrin, 2015)
Side effects:
Produces pulmonary injury
Cross the blood brain barrier and induce seizures
potent cytotoxic drug
Causes profound myelosuppression at the recommended dosage
All patients should be pre-medicated with phenytoin
Administered under the supervision of a qualified physician

Ethnic, Cultural and Genetic Difference
Ethnic: African American are at high risks
They are poor and medically underserved
Limited access to care like screening tests
Cultural: Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (Kagawa‐Singer et al., 2010)Pathophysiology and PharmacologyPP.
Mistrust of healthcare system
Apprehension or embarrassment about having certain kinds of medical procedures
Fatalistic attitudes about cancer
Genetic: African Americans
Evidence of particular gene mutations in this group increases the contraction.
Smoking, environmental factors and solar radiation impacts cause cancer prevalence.Pathophysiology and PharmacologyPP.
Markers for cancer (Egan, 2000)
Diagnose and follow the progress of cancer
Pathology Test:
Microscopic evaluation of abnormal cells
Biopsy and imaging:
CT scan
PET scan
Direct visualization of endothelial tissue in organs
Identification of the genetic make-up-the DNA-of the abnormal cells
Blood Tests:
Measure substances in the blood that may indicate how advanced the cancer is or other problems related to the cancer
Basch, E., Deal, A. M., Kris, M. G., Scher, H. I., Hudis, C. A., Sabbatini, P., … & Chou, J. F. (2016). Symptom monitoring with patient-reported outcomes during routine cancer treatment: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 34(6), 557.Pathophysiology and PharmacologyPP.
Egan, T. K. (2000). Monitoring patients undergoing cancer therapy. Laboratory Medicine, 31(12), 666-671.
Kagawa‐Singer, M., Valdez Dadia, A., Yu, M. C., & Surbone, A. (2010). Cancer, culture, and health disparities: time to chart a new course?. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians, 60(1), 12-39.
Nerini, I. F., Cesca, M., Bizzaro, F., & Giavazzi, R. (2016). Combination therapy in cancer: effects of angiogenesis inhibitors on drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Chinese journal of cancer, 35(1), 61.
Russi, E. W., Negrin, R. S., Jett, J. R., & Savarese, D. M. (2000). Busulfan-induced pulmonary injury. UpToDate in pulmonary and critical care medicine [on CD-ROM]. American Thoracic Society, 8.Pathophysiology and PharmacologyPP.

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