Pathophysiology Essay Assignment Discussion Paper

Posted: November 27th, 2022

Pathophysiology Essay Assignment Discussion Paper

Noninvasive tests are used in the evaluation of pulmonary function to evaluate the functionality of the lungs. Gas exchange, flow rates, and lung volume are all measured during the tests. The information obtained from the tests may assist medical practitioners in diagnosing and determining the best course of action for certain lung diseases. There are several types of tests used in assessing pulmonary function Pathophysiology Essay Assignment Discussion Paper.


Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity

Diffusing capacity is an assessment of how effectively carbon dioxide and oxygen are transported between the blood and lungs. It may be a valuable test in the identification of lung disorders as well as the monitoring of their therapy (Dancer & Thickett, 2016). In addition, diffusing capacity may be relevant prior to lung surgery since it can be used to anticipate how well the operation would be tolerated after the procedure. Practitioners utilize diffusing capacity in conjunction with other pulmonary function tests to diagnose and assess the degree of either restrictive or obstructive lung illnesses Pathophysiology Essay Assignment Discussion Paper.

Residual Volume

The quantity of air that lingers in a person’s lungs after they have completely exhaled is defined as residual volume. To determine the effectiveness of a person’s lungs, healthcare practitioners utilize tests to assess the amount of residual air in the person’s blood. When measuring residual volume, a person breaths from a container holding a reported quantity of a gas (Dancer & Thickett, 2016). The concentration of the gases in the container is evaluated during the test.

 Function Residual Capacity(FRC)

When people exhale normally, the quantity of air remaining in their lungs is identified as the residual air volume. FRC is obtained by summing together the expiratory and residual reserve volumes in a single calculation. The usual range is between 1800 and 2200 mL. FRC does not need any exertion and emphasizes the resting state, which is achieved when the inner and outer elastic recoils are in equilibrium (Dancer & Thickett, 2016). In patients with restrictive diseases, the FRC is decreased Pathophysiology Essay Assignment Discussion Paper.

Total Lung Capacity (TLC)

When a person takes a complete inhalation, their total lung capacity is the capacity of gas in their lungs. In body plethysmography, it is determined from one of two methods: TLC = RV + IVC or TLC = FRC + IC. . It may also be determined directly by the use of radiologic techniques.


Oximetry is a method that is used to determine the amount of oxygen present in the blood. This is accomplished by the use of an oximeter, which is a photoelectric device specifically built for this reason. A reusable probe may be applied to the finger, or a single-use tape probe can be applied to the earlobe or finger (Dancer & Thickett, 2016).


Capnography is a test used for measuring the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the airway during inspiration and expiration. It gives vital physiological parameters on breathing, perfusion, and metabolism, essential for airway management (Long et al., 2017)Pathophysiology Essay Assignment Discussion Paper.

Arterial Blood Gas (ABG)

An arterial blood gas (ABG) test analyzes the pH level, as well as the concentrations of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the blood flowing through an artery. It is performed to determine the effectiveness of one’s lungs in transferring oxygen into the bloodstream and eliminating carbon dioxide from the bloodstream (Castro et al., 2021).

Thoracic Imaging Techniques

Thoracic Imaging Techniques consist of the following:

  • Chest Radiography: It is used to examine the chest wall, heart, and lungs, and it may be utilized to assist in the diagnosis of shortness of breath, fever, chronic cough, chest pain, or damage (Dancer & Thickett, 2016).
  • Computed tomography (CT): It offers significant new insight into the evaluation of thoracic anomalies.
  • High-resolution computer tomography: The procedure is an X-ray scan that generates pictures of the body and is beneficial in the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease.
  • Ultrasound: Pulmonary ultrasonography is a diagnostic technique in the evaluation of pleural, lung, and chest wall illnesses.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): Chest MRI may offer precise information to aid in the diagnosis of lung diseases including tumors or pleural disorders, blood vessel abnormalities, and aberrant lymph nodes (Dancer & Thickett, 2016)Pathophysiology Essay Assignment Discussion Paper.


Pulmonary Angiogram

A pulmonary angiogram is a kind of angiogram that is performed on the blood vessels of the lungs. It is accomplished through the injection of a specific contrast dye into the body’s blood vessels (Hooper et al., 2014).


Castro, D., Patil, S. M., & Keenaghan, M. (2021). Arterial blood gas. StatPearls [Internet].

Dancer, R., & Thickett, D. (2016). Assessment of pulmonary function. Medicine44(4), 226-229.

Hooper, C., Laurence, I., Harvey, J., Morley, A., Darby, M., Edey, A., & Maskell, N. (2014). The role of CT pulmonary angiography in the investigation of unilateral pleural effusions. Respiration, 87(1), 26-31.

Long, B., Koyfman, A., & Vivirito, M. A. (2017). Capnography in the emergency department: A review of uses, waveforms, and limitations. The Journal of Emergency Medicine, 53(6), 829-842. Pathophysiology Essay Assignment Discussion Paper

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