Posted: December 25th, 2022
Pathophysiology of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder Essay
Discussion: Parent Guide
Learning disorders and motor disorders can be difficult for parents to understand. They often have many questions that go unanswered and can create considerable misunderstanding. This misunderstanding can damage the child/parent relationship. The PMHNP can answer questions and provide guidance for the family in order to help reduce the uncertainty of the disorders.
For the Discussion, you will work with your group again to develop a Parent Guide for your assigned disorder. Pathophysiology of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder Essay
To Prepare for this Discussion:
Using evidence-based research, design and develop a Parent Guide for your assigned disorder including:
Provide a minimum of three academic references.
By Day 5
One designated group member should post the completed Parent Guide to the Discussion.
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By Day 7
Respond to at least two other groups’ wikis by providing at least two contributions for improving or including in their Parent Guide and at least two things that you like about their guide.
The occurrence of ADHD is influenced by several environmental and genetic factors. Most twin studies have confirmed genetic associations in monozygotic twins with a 55% to 92% concordance rate for ADHD Reference (Faraone & Larsson, 2018). Recently, ADHD has been confirmed as a polygenic disorder where multiple genes are involved which determine how severe symptoms are. Family environments and factors such as low socioeconomic status, psychosocial stress, foster care, and maternal mental health disorder have also been associated with high rates of ADHD although they are not regarded as primary causes.
Its pathophysiology is believed to result from a deficiency of neural transmission in certain areas of the brain. The regions of the brain which are believed to be involved are prefrontal and frontal regions, the cerebellum and parietal lobe. Functional impairment in these neurotransmitter regions of the brain involves either norepinephrine or dopamine pathways that govern cognitive process (Banaschewski et al., 2017). These pathways have a direct responsibility in the cognitive control of behavior, perception of rewards, motivation and motor control. Similarly, they play a critical role in ADHD’s pathophysiology. When a reduction in the volume of particular structures of the brain occurs, with a huge decrease in the left-side prefrontal cortex, the posterior parietal cortex thins in comparison to its controls (Banaschewski et al., 2017). Pathophysiology of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder Essay
An overexpression of dopamine transporter and defects in dopamine receptors D4 genes is likely to result to symptoms of ADHD since Norepinephrine (NE) and Dopamine (DA) are used by the DRD4 receptor to respond to an individual’s environment and to modulate attention (Banaschewski et al., 2017). The dopamine transporter proteins can take in norepinephrine or dopamine in the presynaptic cleft and result in insufficient interaction with postsynaptic receptors further resulting in ADHD symptoms.
Banaschewski, T., Becker, K., Döpfner, M., Holtmann, M., Rösler, M., & Romanos, M. (2017). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a current overview. Deutsches Ärzteblatt International, 114(9), 149.
Faraone, S. V., & Larsson, H. (2018). Genetics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Molecular Psychiatry, 1. Pathophysiology of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder Essay
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