Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Essay Discussion Paper

Posted: January 10th, 2023

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Essay Discussion Paper

A middle-aged man was hospitalized and hurried to surgery because of a ruptured appendix. Dilaudid was administered to him post-operatively at a dose of two milligrams every three hours, as required. Unfortunately, the client was on Suboxone for heroin addiction, thus this effort at pain management was a failure. According to Leighton & Crock (2017), individuals on Suboxone often have poorer pain management and higher postoperative opioid needs than opioid-naive individuals, regardless of whether or not buprenorphine is administered before surgical intervention Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Essay Discussion Paper


Suboxone’s distinct pharmacodynamics create a difficult task for healthcare practitioners managing acute pain in the postoperative context. Suboxone is a combination of two drugs as well as naloxone. Mu-opioid receptors are somewhat stimulated by Buprenorphine but are completely inhibited by Naloxone, which is a strong antagonist of the receptors (Leighton & Crock, 2017). As a partial opioid agonist, buprenorphine has less intrinsic action than a complete opioid. As a result of its strong binding to opioid u and k receptors and the ceiling impact it provides, it is less likely to cause cravings and withdrawal symptoms. Another issue is that individuals arriving for immediate or emergency surgery do not have enough time to detox from buprenorphine, since it has a half-life of 24–60 hours (Leighton & Crock, 2017)Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Essay Discussion Paper.

The plan of care for such a patient should include multimodal pain management. Multimodal pain management provides for the obstruction of pain transmission at various areas throughout the nervous system while causing fewer potentially life-threatening adverse effects than single modality pain control alone (Malan et al., 2020). Because the aim is to provide the best achievable pain management without the use of more opioids, the clinician should inject a long-acting local anesthetic into the surgical site before proceeding (Warner et al., 2020). When the patient is being observed in a facility for the period of projected pain, more analgesic drugs like ketamine and intravenous lidocaine interventions should be considered.


Leighton, B. L., & Crock, L. W. (2017). Case series of successful postoperative pain management in buprenorphine maintenance therapy patients. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 125(5), 1779-1783.

Malan, S. H., Bailey, C. H., & Khurmi, N. (2020). Perioperative management of a patient taking Suboxone® at the time of ambulatory surgery. Case Reports in Anesthesiology, 2020, 1-5.

Warner, N. S., Warner, M. A., Cunningham, J. L., Gazelka, H. M., Hooten, W. M., Kolla, B. P., & Warner, D. O. (2020). A practical approach for the management of the mixed opioid agonist-antagonist buprenorphine during acute pain and surgery. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 95(6), 1253-1267. and Pharmacodynamics Essay Discussion Paper

Discussion: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics As an advanced practice nurse assisting physicians in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders, it is important to not only understand the impact of disorders on the body, but also the impact of drug treatments on the body. The relationships between drugs and the body can be described by pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Pharmacokinetics describes what the body does to the drug through absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, whereas pharmacodynamics describes what the drug does to the body. Photo Credit: Getty Images/Ingram Publishing When selecting drugs and determining dosages for patients, it is essential to consider individual patient factors that might impact the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes. These patient factors include genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, behavior (i.e., diet, nutrition, smoking, alcohol, illicit drug abuse), and/or pathophysiological changes due to disease. For this Discussion, you reflect on a case from your past clinical experiences and consider how a patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes may alter his or her response to a drug. To Prepare • Review the Resources for this module and consider the principles of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. • Reflect on your experiences, observations, and/or clinical practices from the last 5 years and think about how pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors altered his or her anticipated response to a drug. • Consider factors that might have influenced the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes, such as genetics (including pharmacogenetics), gender, ethnicity, age, behavior, and/or possible pathophysiological changes due to disease. • Think about a personalized plan of care based on these influencing factors and patient history in your case study. By Day 3 of Week 1 Post a description of the patient case from your experiences, observations, and/or clinical practice from the last 5 years Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Essay Discussion Paper.

Then, describe factors that might have influenced pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes of the patient you identified. Finally, explain details of the personalized plan of care that you would develop based on influencing factors and patient history in your case. Be specific and provide examples. RUBRIC Main Posting– Excellent 45 (45%) – 50 (50%) Answers all parts of the Discussion question(s) with reflective critical analysis and synthesis of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module and current credible sources. Supported by at least three current, credible sources. Written clearly and concisely with no grammatical or spelling errors and fully adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style. Learning Resources Required Readings (click to expand/reduce) Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier. • Chapter 1, “Prescriptive Authority” (pp. 1–3) • Chapter 2, “Rational Drug Selection and Prescription Writing” (pp. 4–7) • Chapter 3, “Promoting Positive Outcomes of Drug Therapy” (pp. 8–12) • Chapter 4, “Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Drug Interactions” (pp. 13–33) • Chapter 5, “Adverse Drug Reactions and Medication Errors” (pp. 34–42) • Chapter 6, “Individual Variation in Drug Response” (pp. 43–45) American Geriatrics Society 2019 Beers Criteria Update Expert Panel. (2019). American Geriatrics Society 2019 updated AGS Beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 67(4), 674–694. doi:10.1111/jgs.15767 American Geriatrics Society 2019 updated AGS Beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults by American Geriatrics Society, in Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, Vol. 67/Issue 4. Copyright 2019 by Blackwell Publishing. Reprinted by permission of Blackwell Publishing via the Copyright Clearance Center. This article is an update to the Beers Criteria, which includes lists of potentially inappropriate medications to be avoided in older adults as well as newly added criteria that lists select drugs that should be avoided or have their dose adjusted based on the individual’s kidney function and select drug-drug interactions documented to be associated with harms in older adults. Drug Enforcement Administration. (2021)Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Essay Discussion Paper.


CFR – Code of Federal Regulations Title 21. This website outlines the code of federal regulations for prescription drugs. Drug Enforcement Administration. (n.d.-a). Mid-level practitioners authorization by state. Retrieved May 13, 2019 from This website outlines the schedules for controlled substances, including prescriptive authority for each schedule. Drug Enforcement Administration. (2006). Practitioner’s manual. Retrieved from This manual is a resource for practitioners who prescribe, dispense, and administer controlled substances. It provides information on general requirements, security issues, recordkeeping, prescription requirements, and addiction treatment programs. Drug Enforcement Administration. (n.d.-b). Registration. Retrieved February 1, 2019, from This website details key aspects of drug registration. Fowler, M. D. M., & American Nurses Association. (2015). Guide to the code of ethics for nurses with interpretive statements: Development, interpretation, and application (2nd ed.). American Nurses Association. This resource introduces the code of ethics for nurses and highlights critical aspects for ethical guideline development, interpretation, and application in practice. Institute for Safe Medication Practices. (2017). List of error-prone abbreviations, symbols, and dose designations. Retrieved from This website provides a list of prescription-writing abbreviations that might lead to misinterpretation, as well as suggestions for preventing resulting errors. Ladd, E., & Hoyt, A. (2016). Shedding light on nurse practitioner prescribing. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 12(3), 166–173. doi:10.1016/j.nurpra.2015.09.17 This article provides NPs with information regarding state-based laws for NP prescribing. Sabatino, J. A., Pruchnicki, M. C., Sevin, A. M., Barker, E., Green, C. G., & Porter, K. (2017). Improving prescribing practices: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Essay Discussion Paper

A pharmacist‐led educational intervention for nurse practitioner students. Journal of the American Association ofNurse Practitioners, 29(5), 248–254. doi:10.1002/2327-6924.12446 The authors of this article assess the impact of a pharmacist‐led educational intervention on family nurse practitioner (FNP) students’ prescribing skills, perception of preparedness to prescribe, and perception of pharmacist as collaborator.  Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Essay Discussion Paper

Expert paper writers are just a few clicks away

Place an order in 3 easy steps. Takes less than 5 mins.

Calculate the price of your order

You will get a personal manager and a discount.
We'll send you the first draft for approval by at
Total price:
Live Chat+1 (631)333-0101EmailWhatsApp