Research Critiques And PICOT Question Discussion Paper

Posted: December 15th, 2022

Research Critiques And PICOT Question Discussion Paper

Research Critiques and PICOT Question

Research is critiqued in the field of nursing for the dual purposes of improving one’s comprehension of the study’s subject matter and determining whether or not the findings of the research may be used productively in clinical settings. Because nursing is a profession that is constantly developing and advancing, it is essential to maintain a level of research proficiency in the most recent iterations of various approaches and techniques used in the medical industry. Based on what one learns from their research, they might identify potential improvement or change possibilities.

Nursing Practice Problem and PICOT Question

The chosen nursing practice problem is suicide attempts among adolescents with depression. As the third greatest cause of death among children and adolescents of all ages in the U. S., including those aged 10 to 19 years, suicide has been shown to be a serious public health issue. Most young people who make an attempt at suicide suffer from a serious psychiatric problem, most often depression. Impulsiveness is a common factor in attempted suicides made by teenagers. They might be connected to emotions such as melancholy, perplexity, and rage, as well as difficulties with focus and agitation.  Research Critiques And PICOT Question Discussion Paper


During the course of my research on this nursing practice issue, I had to formulate a clinical question. The clinical question had to have a clear bearing on the issue at hand and be formulated in a manner that made it easier to look for a solution. This process was simplified with the help of PICOT. As such, the developed PICOT question is: Among adolescents diagnosed with depression in community health clinics (P), does receiving weekly psychotherapy sessions (I), compared to using only medication daily (C), reduce the incidence of suicidal ideation and thoughts (O), when evaluated monthly over 6 months? Research Critiques And PICOT Question Discussion Paper


According to O’Brien et al (2021), the rate of suicide attempts among young people has increased as a result of the interaction of a number of different variables. As per past research, such variables include mental illnesses, psychological stress, intense unpleasant emotional states, trauma, and socioeconomic challenges. The timing and interaction of those elements, unfortunately, remained a mystery (O’Brien et al., 2021). As a result, the purpose of their research was to explore the variables that contribute to attempted suicides and how those variables interact with one another to cause adolescents to initiate suicidal behavior. Why do teenagers attempt suicide, and what elements make it easier for them to organize and carry out their suicide plans? These were the key research questions addressed by O’Brien et al. (2021).

Another research was carried out by Almeida et al. (2021), who reported that decreased interpersonal connection among teenagers during the COVID-19 outbreak resulted in elevated feelings of loneliness and thoughts of suicide. On the other hand, it was not understood how teenagers plot attempts at suicide and choose ways to kill themselves. Almeida et al. (2021) sought to give a comprehensive knowledge of the process of plotting a suicide attempt by examining teenagers who had previously tried suicide. The research question in this study was why youth prefer particular means of suicide.

The research performed by Nii-Boye Quarshie and Andoh Arthur (2020) and Badarch et al. (2022) is both founded on modeling suicidal behavior among teenagers who are enrolled in schools. Their research is predicated on the observation that young people are one of the most vulnerable groups in society, as seen by the increased suicide attempt figures among young people. Nii-Boye Quarshie and Andoh Arthur (2020) intended to utilize the collected evidence in their research to identify any gender-related elements that contribute to the suicidal ideation and behavior of teenagers. The other study, which was conducted by Badarch et al. (2022), sought to identify the numerous elements that are connected to suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Both Nii-Boye Quarshie and Andoh Arthur (2020) and Badarch et al. (2022) studies have the same conceptual underpinning. They also have a related research question, which is to identify the numerous aspects that trigger suicide attempts in school-going teenagers. Research Critiques And PICOT Question Discussion Paper

How they support the Nursing Practice Issue

Extensive knowledge about teenage suicide is provided by the articles, which helps in answering the PICOT question. As a result, this enables nurse practitioners as well as other medical professionals to make better use of the knowledge in finding ideal approaches for the management and prevention of suicidal behavior. The variables that influence a person’s progression from having suicidal thoughts to attempting suicide are the focus of the research that O’Brien et al. (2021) conducted. In light of this, it is easier to comprehend how healthcare professionals can contribute to putting an end to such attempts. According to Almeida et al. (2021), their research is one of the few that have analyzed the intricate ideas and thoughts prior to the suicide attempt, along with how adolescents choose the manner of suicide. This entailed gathering data from individuals who had tried to commit suicide, which provided evidence based on people’s actual life situations. As a result of the researchers’ comprehensive look at the aspects involved in suicide planning and attempt, the obtained findings may be put to use in programs aimed at preventing and managing suicides.

Teenage suicide attempts have been linked to a variety of risk factors, and the research conducted by Nii-Boye Quarshie & Andoh Arthur (2020) and Badarch et al. (2022) identified a few of these variables. The studies’ results have a direct impact on the field of nursing practice. This is due to the fact that they discovered the different elements that impact the psychological state of teens, including substance abuse, anxiety, sexual abuse, and persistent harassment. In addition, the studies acknowledge that managing depression among individuals in medical facilities is a significant challenge owing to the fact that the efficacy of certain depression drugs has been called into doubt. Psychotherapy measures, like implementing mental health policies for adolescents likely to get depressed were recommended.

Method of Study

O’Brien et al. (2021) conducted face-to-face interviews with a total of Twenty teenagers for their research. The analysis of the data included a process called thematic analysis, which consisted of identifying key concepts for different data sets, including contributory variables and the shift from suicidal thought to attempted suicide. Similarly, Almeida et al. (2021) conducted in-person interviews with 20 teenagers to conduct their research on the topic. Within a semi-structured interview framework, the researchers utilized open-ended inquiries to obtain information from the subjects.  Research Critiques And PICOT Question Discussion Paper

The Global School-based Student Health Survey was utilized as the research methodology for both Nii-Boye Quarshie and Andoh Arthur’s (2020) and Badarch et al. (2022) research. In the study by Nii-Boye Quarshie and Andoh Arthur (2020) the data that had been gathered beforehand by the World Health Organization of adolescents enrolled in middle and high schools were collected. On the other hand, Badarch et al. (2022) gave separate sets of questionnaires to individuals between the ages of 13 and 18 years and 10 and 12 years old. These questionnaires consisted of 10 items that addressed a variety of topics, including drug addiction, mental wellbeing, sexual experiences, and unplanned pregnancies.

Interviews and a methodology called the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) are two of the methodologies that have been identified in the studies. The use of interviews in this nursing practice problem may have certain possible benefits, one of which is that they assist in explaining, better understanding, and exploring the views, attitudes, or phenomena of study participants (McGrath et al., 2018). The most significant drawbacks associated with interview design include the potential for it to produce biases and the limited degree of confidentiality that it offers respondents. On the other hand, the potential advantage of using a method like the Global School-based Student Health Survey is that it gives reliable data on health patterns and vulnerability elements among adolescents, which may assist in the development of additional goals and the implementation of relevant interventions (Johnson et al., 2019). However, the most significant drawbacks of the GSHS are that the findings may be affected by memory bias and that the survey is often not given to teenagers who are non-schoolers, which means that the findings may not be reflective of this age group of teenagers. Research Critiques And PICOT Question Discussion Paper


Results of Study

According to the findings of O’Brien et al. (2021), the stress brought on by interpersonal, socioeconomic, and historical variables was not sufficient on its own to lead teenagers to self-harm. A combination of intrapersonal variables seemed to skew thought patterns or intensify emotions in all but two of the subjects, making suicide a feasible solution. Teenage suicide attempts, according to Almeida et al. (2021), are often spontaneous and impulsive, motivated mostly by a desire to end their suffering immediately. The ease with which the means of suicide might be accessed influenced the decision.

According to the findings of Nii-Boye Quarshie and Andoh Arthur, (2020), suicide prevention and health promotion modalities are vital to avoid the problem of suicide among teenagers. This was achieved by demonstrating that the strategy needed to be designed to fit the unique features of the person, the family factors, and the academic setting. Findings also suggest that the rising incidence of attempted suicides among teenagers compelled the Health Ministry to implement measures aimed at protecting adolescents from the danger of taking their own lives. It was also demonstrated by Badarch et al. (2022) that a holistic healthcare policy for teenagers that would encompass psychological state, physical wellbeing, and other cognitive and behavioral difficulties was vital in minimizing the incidence of suicide attempts among teenagers.

The research results suggest that nurses should integrate behavioral and cognitive approaches to combat skewed thinking in their nursing care (O’Brien et al., 2021). These skewed views might originate as a result of upsetting situations that people go through in their lives. Teenagers’ emotions and thoughts should be identified and reported by nurses during psychotherapy treatments, which can aid in goal formulation in the long run.

Ethical Considerations

When carrying out their study, the researchers made sure to take into account a number of different ethical factors. Prior to beginning the research, the researchers made sure to have both the subjects’ and the parents’ consent beforehand. Additionally, they stated that they did not have any conflicting interests in relation to the studies or the authorship of the publications. Research Critiques And PICOT Question Discussion Paper

Outcomes Comparison

All of the approaches that are covered in the articles are essential contributors to the core issue. The findings of the research show that in order to combat depression, which is the major cause of suicidal ideation and attempts among teenagers, it is necessary to use psychotherapy. The research found a number of psychotherapy interventions for improving healthy mental wellbeing, including cognitive-behavioral therapy and family psychoeducation.

Proposed Evidence-Based Practice Change

Both the PICOT question and the research articles are geared at recommending psychotherapy as the option that will be most effective in reducing the number of suicide attempts among teenagers who suffer from depression. As such, the introduction of psychotherapy interventions such as CBT and family psychoeducation constitute the proposed evidence-based practice change for this patient population. This is due to the fact that research has shown psychotherapy can lessen the likelihood of a person making repeated attempted suicides or harming oneself. It may also assist support a depressed teenager who is involved in a psychological process, which may eventually result in an altered outlook and increased sense of optimism. Research Critiques And PICOT Question Discussion Paper


Almeida, J., Barber, C., Rosen, R. K., Nicolopoulos, A., & O’Brien, K. H. (2021). “In the moment I wanted to kill myself, and then after I didn’t”: A qualitative investigation of suicide planning, method choice, and method substitution among adolescents hospitalized following a suicide attempt. Youth & Society, 0044118X2110359.×211035950

Badarch, J., Chuluunbaatar, B., Batbaatar, S., & Paulik, E. (2022). Suicide attempts among school-attending adolescents in Mongolia: Associated factors and gender differences. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(5), 2991.

Johnson, R. K., Lamb, M., Anderson, H., Pieters-Arroyo, M., Anderson, B. T., Bolaños, G. A., & Asturias, E. J. (2019). The global school-based student health survey as a tool to guide adolescent health interventions in rural Guatemala. BMC Public Health, 19(1).

McGrath, C., Palmgren, P. J., & Liljedahl, M. (2018). Twelve tips for conducting qualitative research interviews. Medical Teacher, 41(9), 1002-1006.

Nii-Boye Quarshie, E., & Andoh-Arthur, J. (2022). Suicide attempts among 1,437 adolescents aged 12–17 years attending junior high schools in Ghana. Crisis, 43(1), 8-17.

O’Brien, K. H. M., Nicolopoulos, A., Almeida, J., Aguinaldo, L. D., & Rosen, R. K. (2021). Why adolescents attempt suicide: a qualitative study of the transition from ideation to action. Archives of suicide research, 25(2), 269-286. Research Critiques And PICOT Question Discussion Paper

Research Critiques and PICOT Statement Final Draft


Start Date

May 23, 2022, 12:00 AM

Due Date

May 29, 2022, 11:59 PM




View Rubric



Assessment Traits

Requires Lopeswrite

Assessment Description

Prepare this assignment as a 1,500-1,750 word paper using the instructor feedback from the previous course assignments and the guidelines below.

PICOT Question 

Revise the PICOT question you wrote in the Topic 1 assignment using the feedback you received from your instructor.

The final PICOT question will provide a framework for your capstone project (the project students must complete during their final course in the RN-BSN program of study). Research Critiques And PICOT Question Discussion Paper

Research Critiques

In the Topic 2 and Topic 3 assignments, you completed a qualitative and quantitative research critique on two articles for each type of study (4 articles total). Use the feedback you received from your instructor on these assignments to finalize the critical analysis of each study by making appropriate revisions.

The completed analysis should connect to your identified practice problem of interest that is the basis for your PICOT question.

Refer to “Research Critiques and PICOT Guidelines – Final Draft.” Questions under each heading should be addressed as a narrative in the structure of a formal paper.

Proposed Evidence-Based Practice Change

Discuss the link between the PICOT question, the research articles, and the nursing practice problem you identified. Include relevant details and supporting explanation and use that information to propose evidence-based practice changes.

General Requirements

You are required to cite a minimum of three peer-reviewed sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the last 5 years, appropriate for the assignment criteria, and relevant to nursing practice.

Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. A link to the LopesWrite technical support articles is located in Class Resources if you need assistance. Research Critiques And PICOT Question Discussion Paper

Research Critiques and PICOT Question Guidelines –

Final Draft

Quantitative and Quantitative Studies

Nursing Practice Problem and PICOT Question

  1. What is your identified nursing practice problem?
  2. List your PICOT question, following one of the templated formats reviewed in the course.



  1. Summary of studies. Include problem, significance to nursing, purpose, objective, and research question.

How do these four articles support the nurse practice issue you chose?

  1. Discuss how these articles will be used to answer your PICOT question.
  2. Describe how the interventions and comparison groups in the articles compare to those identified in your PICOT question.

Method of Study:

  1. State the methods of the articles you are comparing and describe how they are different.
  2. Consider the methods you identified in your chosen articles and state one benefit and one limitation of each method.

Results of Study

  1. Summarize the key findings of each of the studies into a comprehensive summary.
  2. What are the implications of the four studies you chose in nursing practice?

Ethical Considerations

  1. Discuss two ethical consideration in conducting research.
  2. Describe how the researchers in the four articles you choose took these ethical considerations into account while performing their research. Research Critiques And PICOT Question Discussion Paper

Outcomes Comparison

  1. What are the anticipated outcomes for your PICOT question?
  2. How do the outcomes of the four articles you chose compare to your anticipated outcomes?

Proposed Evidence-Based Practice Change

  1. What is the link between the PICOT question, the research articles, and the nursing practice problem you identified?
  2. Based on this information, propose an evidence-based practice change for your identified setting. Research Critiques And PICOT Question Discussion Paper 

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