Posted: November 20th, 2022
Rheumatoid Arthritis: Pharmacology Essay
To prepare: please use sources that are peer review articles that are five years or less old. Select one of the following endocrine or musculoskeletal disorders: thyroid disease, osteoarthritis, rheumatic arthritis, gout, multiple sclerosis, or fibromyalgia. Consider the types of drugs that would be prescribed to patients to treat symptoms associated with this disorder. Select one of the following factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Reflect on how this factor might impact the effects of prescribed drugs, as well as any measures you might take to help reduce negative side effects. With these thoughts in mind: By Day 3 Post a description of the endocrine or musculoskeletal disorder you selected including types of drugs that would be prescribed to patients to treat associated symptoms. Then, explain how the factor you selected might impact the effects of prescribed drugs, as well as any measures you might take to help reduce negative side effects.
This paper discusses the clinical signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, the drugs used to manage its symptoms and how behavior as a patient factor impacts the effects of prescribed drugs and the measures that can be taken to reduce the negative effects from medications.Rheumatoid Arthritis: Pharmacology Essay
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Rheumatoid arthritis is a commonly occurring condition which affects all people irrespective of race, ethnicity, gender and age. However, the risk increases with individuals aged 40 years or older and those of a feminine gender as compared to men. It is defined as a chronic inflammation which involves the joints. Joints which are commonly affected are those of the knees, feet and the hands. Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune condition whereby, the immune system tends to attack tissues which surround the joints (Catrina et al., 2016). It is important to know that, the inflammation which occurs in rheumatoid arthritis can easily result to bone erosion and deformity of the joints and this can potentially leave an individual totally unable to function using specific joints depending on the severity of the condition (Firestein & McInnes, 2017).
Significant signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis include: joint pains, stiffness of the joints early in the morning which gets better as the day progresses and fatigue. However, rheumatoid arthritis cannot only be diagnosed based on the signs and symptoms that a client presents with since the signs can easily go into remission. Instead, x-rays of the affected joints also have to be done which likely show nodules under the skin of the affected joint (Catrina et al., 2016). Laboratory tests such as the rheumatoid factor test which detects antibodies in blood can be performed. However, not all positive cases indicate that a patient has rheumatoid arthritis. A more specific test is the cyclic citrulline antibody test which reveals the existence of a more aggressive form of rheumatoid arthritis.
Drugs prescribed To Treat Symptoms Associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis.
The modalities for managing rheumatoid arthritis include a combination of exercise, rest and medications. Depending on the extent of severity and damage to the joint, surgery can also be indicated. Treatment is highly dependent on several factors such as medical history, patient’s age, severity and the general health status of a patient. According to Tanaka (2016), the major goal of treatment is to reduce the severity of the symptoms such as joint inflammation, swelling and pain. Most of the drugs either slow down or prevent disease progression. The most indicated medications include: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as naproxen, ibuprofen and aspirin. Topical pain relievers such as Lidoderm, prednisone and corticosteroids can also be prescribed. Narcotics such as oxycodone and Percocet can also be prescribed for relieving pain and inflammation. The progression of rheumatoid arthritis is slowed down by the use of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDS). They function by either suppressing or interfering the attack of the immune system over the joints. The most commonly prescribed and recommended DMARD is methotrexate (Tanaka, 2016).Rheumatoid Arthritis: Pharmacology Essay
How Behavior Might Impact the Effects of Prescribed Drugs and Measures to Reduce Negative Effects
A patient’s diet along with participating in physical exercise has a significant effect on treatment such that it either slows or speeds up disease progression depending on its intensity. More specifically, research has shown that ingesting dietary supplements of n-3 fatty acids significantly reduces the severity and number of tender joints as well as the intensity of joints morning stiffness in patients who have been diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (Di Giuseppe et al., 2015).
Catrina, A. I., Joshua, V., Klareskog, L., & Malmström, V. (2016). Mechanisms involved in triggering rheumatoid arthritis. Immunological reviews, 269(1), 162-174.
Di Giuseppe, D., Bottai, M., Askling, J., & Wolk, A. (2015). Physical activity and risk of rheumatoid arthritis in women: a population-based prospective study. Arthritis research & therapy, 17(1), 40.
Firestein, G. S., & McInnes, I. B. (2017). Immunopathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Immunity, 46(2), 183-196.
Tanaka, Y. (2016). Current concepts in the management of rheumatoid arthritis. The Korean journal of internal medicine, 31(2), 210. Rheumatoid Arthritis: Pharmacology Essay
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