Special Topics in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Essay

Posted: December 6th, 2022

Special Topics in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Essay

Discussion- Special Topics in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry-WK11 Many children face special issues that impact everyday life, whether it is within themselves, their families, or their environment. The PMHNP must be sensitive to these many issues that children and adolescents are faced with during important developmental years. In this Discussion, you select a special population and analyze the psychological issues that the population faces. You also address the assessment and treatment needs of the population. Learning Objectives Students will: Special Topics in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Essay. • Analyze psychological issues that may arise in children faced with special circumstances • Evaluate assessment measures used with children faced with special circumstances • Evaluate treatment options used with children faced with special circumstances • Analyze cultural influences on treatments (D) To Prepare for the Discussion: • Review the Learning Resources. • Select one of the following topics for the Discussion: o Adoption o Foster care o Gender dysphoria o Forensic issues o Impact of terrorism on children Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts and cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking Submit! QUESTION Post: • Write your selected disorder in the subject line of your Discussion post. • Explain the psychological issues that may result from your topic. • Describe the most effective assessment measure that could be used, and explain why you selected this. • Explain the treatment options available for children and adolescents involved with your selected disorder. • Explain how culture may influence treatment. Special Topics in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Essay

Special Topics in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry-WK11

Gender Dysphoria

Gender dysphoria is a common disorder among children, and especially adults. Children and adolescents with gender dysphoria are significantly discontented with their biological and assigned gender.  This is extremely serious for adolescents who are undergoing bodily developments that they are discontented with and as a result,this population has specific mental health needs (Johannes et al, 2015). Special Topics in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Essay

Psychological Issues

Pediatric population with gender dysphoria issusceptiblebecause it facessignificant psychopathological burden. This is because such children and adolescents question their assigned gender expectations and seek to the accepted and recognized through the opposite gender. They also desire to have physical developments congruent with their desired gender. In addition, this population often experiences bullying, stigmatization, discrimination as well as social isolation (AACAP, 2012c).  All these issues cause significant distress and misery to children and adolescents with gender dysphoria. A study conducted by Steensma et al (2013) found out that 90% of teenagers with gender dysphoria were depressed, and exhibited anxiety, substance abuse, and suicidal ideation. This indicates the numerous psychological issues experienced by this population and hence the population is at susceptible to mental health problems. For example, teenagers with gender dysphoria have been shown to manifest suicidal tendencies, self-harm behaviors, and eating disorders as an attempt to internally disconnect from psychological pain(Johannes et al, 2015).Special Topics in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Essay


Most Effective Assessment Measure

A psychosocial assessment is the most effective measure for children/adolescents with suspected to have gender dysphoria. The psychosocial assessment aims to understand the development and gender identity of the child/adolescent in the context of the family, community and life experiences(Butler et al, 2018).  The psychosocial assessment considers how a person currently feels regarding their gender and their body and previously; the context in which feelings associated with gender dysphoria emerged and increased; as well as the management of the feelings and the future expectations. The psychosocial assessment further explores the expectation of the child/adolescent in case of a social/physical transition.  The assessment of the mood and anxiety levels is also done (Butler et al, 2018).

DSM-5 provides the diagnostic criteria for gender dysphoria in the pediatric population. For a diagnosis, the minor must strongly desire opposite gender; show strong preference to wear attire associated with the opposite gender; strongly prefer cross-gender roles; strongly prefer toys and activities associated with the opposite gender; prefer playmates from opposite gender; strongly rejects toys, activities as well as games associated with their assigned gender; strongly dislike for their physical genitalia; and strongly wants to have physical characteristics matching the desired gender (American Nurses Association, 2014).Special Topics in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Essay

Treatment Options

Family therapy: The therapist can help the child/adolescent and their family to explore techniques and tools for supporting the feelings surrounding the distress of being unable to physically express their desired gender identity. The family is helped to develop an informed and supportive dynamic in order to help the minor in their journey to explore their gender. This gender creates a space where a minor is able to safely explore their various gender expressions and therefore assist in relieving distress associated with gender dysphoria (Shumeret al, 2016).

GnRHa: This treatment offers reversible choice to stop the production of sex hormones and lowers the anxiety associated with the existing unwanted physical developments. Parents for children below 16 years may consent for treatment with their children’s assent, while adolescents aged above 16 years may consent to the treatment(Shumer et al, 2016).

Cultural Influences on Treatments

There are various cultural influences when it comes to treatment of the pediatric population with gender dysphoria. Some cultures openly stigmatize, discriminate and socially isolate individuals with dysphoria because they term it as a forbidden. Therefore, in such cultures, people may not readily come out and seek treatment for the fear of being stigmatized or socially isolated. On the other hand, if the culture does not discriminate against treatment such as gender reversal, individuals with dysphoria will seektreatment without any fear (Steensma et al, 2013).Special Topics in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Essay


American Nurses Association. (2014). Psychiatric-mental health nursing: Scope and standards of practice (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP). (2012c). Practice parameter on gay, lesbian, or bisexual sexual orientation, gender nonconformity, and gender discordance in children and adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 51(9), 957–974.

Butler G, Graaf N, Wren B & Polly C. (2018).Assessment and support of children and adolescents with gender dysphoria.BMJ Journals.103(7). Special Topics in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Essay

Johannes F, Matthias A & Peer B. (2015). Gender dysphoria in children and adolescents: a review of recent research. Current Opinion in Psychiatry.  28(6), 430–434.

Steensma, T. D., McGuire, J. K., Kreukels, B. P., Beekman, A. J., & Cohen-Kettenis, P. T. (2013). Factors associated with desistence and persistence of childhood gender dysphoria: a quantitative follow-up study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry.52(6), 582-590.

Shumer D, Nokoff N &Spack N. (2016).Advances in the Care of Transgender Children and Adolescents.AdvPediatr.  63(1): 79–102. Special Topics in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Essay

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