State-of-the-Science Review of the Literature.

Posted: December 26th, 2022

State-of-the-Science Review of the Literature.


Requirements: Preparing the Assignment: Part 2 Criteria for Content Abstract: The abstract should be succinct, comprehensive, and follow and include these APA components (accurate, non-evaluative, coherent, readable and concise). A description of the problem under investigation (one sentence), participants, and essential features of the quality improvement project which include setting, supporting theory, stakeholders and outcome measurements that would be used to determine efficacy of quality improvement project are included. (See APA 6th ed., for abstract examples and explanation; p. 25-26) State-of-the-Science Review of the Literature (ROL):


This section will describe the state of the science related to the PICO question and problem statement, purpose of the quality project.State-of-the-Science Review of the Literature. 1. A minimum of 6 (six) appropriate research-based scholarly references (articles) must be used. Be aware that information from .com websites may be incorrect and should be avoided. References are current if within a 5-year time frame (3 years is best) 2. The evidence should be critically reviewed and synthesized. 3. The strengths and limitations of the current evidence and current practice are described which provide evidence for practice change clearly supported 4. The identified area of issue or gap in practice is made clear using evidence and is compelling and significant. 5. No more than three (3) direct quotes are used. Quality Change Plan: In this section the writer will create an inter-disciplinary quality improvement plan for their future practice area. The JH Action Planning Tool may be used as a guide but is not required to be submitted along with the project. This section should be supported by scholarly in-text citations and include the following sections: 1. Feasible plan for implementation: Select a model for use, such as the Plan/Do/Study/Act Model. 2. Identification of key stakeholders with rationale for identification. 3. Identification of appropriate interdisciplinary team members to assemble with rationale. 4. A plan for outcome analysis (this should include independent and dependent variables as well as an overview of a method of statistical analysis (which statistics or outcome measures). 5. Ethical considerations: Protection of Human Subjects. Criteria for Format and Special Instructions: 1. Title page, running head, body of paper, and reference page must follow APA guidelines as found in the 6th edition of the manual. This includes the use of headings for each section of the paper except for the introduction where no heading is used. 2. Ideas and information from scholarly, peer reviewed, nursing sources must be cited and referenced correctly. 3. Rules of grammar, spelling, word usage, and punctuation are followed and consistent with formal, scientific, scholarly writing. First person writing should not be utilized. Remember: All sections should have scholarly resources integrated as in-text citations that support the content. APA current edition is required for all elements of the paper.State-of-the-Science Review of the Literature.


America records a reduced rate of influenza flu vaccination yearly which is a key healthcare concern. The study seeks to determine whether text messaging of patients aged 30-70 years each September will increase yearly influenza vaccine rates in the country. The supporting theories for the study are AvedisDonabedian and Behaviorist Theory. The key stakeholder in the project will be the government, the healthcare system, patients, the citizens and providers. Others include academic researchers, non-governmental organizations, media, international organizations, federal government agencies, federal advisory committees and departments and advocacy groups. Outcome measurements will focus on the rates of influenza vaccinations.State-of-the-Science Review of the Literature.



State-of-the-Science Review of the Literature

PICO question

In patients aged 30-70 years (P), will text messaging each September (I) in comparison to not texting (C) increase yearly influenza vaccine rates (O)?

It is estimated that 3,000 to 49,000 people die annually from influenza related causes according to reports by the American Lung Association (Ng, Cowling, So, Ip& Liao, 2020). Yearly influenza vaccination is released every year with the aim of keeping up with the increasingly adapting flu viruses.State-of-the-Science Review of the Literature. It seeks to improve the human immunity through the production of antibodies included in the vaccine to protect against their infection. Influenza has become a health concern morbidity and mortality. This has necessitated effective measures to reinforce the vaccination exercise in order to curb the spread of the airborne disease. According to the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, the 2016-2017 season, 43.3% of the population aged 18 years and above was covered by the vaccine (Ding et al., 2017). However, a lower rate of influenza vaccine adherence was observed among this group during the 2017-2018 season. This season recorded a reduction of 6.2% from 43.3% to 37.1%. In general, a decline in influenza vaccination rates has been observed in all age groups in the US.State-of-the-Science Review of the Literature.

Lehnert et al. (2018) recognizes the need for use of text messages to remind people of the influenza pandemic vaccination. He notes that this activity has facilitated the achievement of a dose-series completion and promoted campaigns as well as awareness regarding the epidemic. Similarly, a study by O’Leary et al. (2016), points out that the use short message services asvaccination reminders greatly improves the adherence to vaccinations among children and adolescents. The authors also note the cost effectiveness as well as the efficiency of healthcare associated with the texting. Lehnert et al. (2018)also recommends the adoption of a system based application for healthcare to facilitate vaccine adherence in the local and global environment citing the successful pilot study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).State-of-the-Science Review of the Literature.

According to Mekonnenet al. (2019), development of automated text-message reminder system has greatly improved the uptake of child vaccination. The study conducted in Ethiopia, a country with significant non-attendance and vaccination delay incidencesattributed these increased rates to forgetfulness of showing up vaccination schedules by caretakers as well as the parents. The development of an automated reminder system with integration of mobile technologies was identified by the study as the most effective intervention to ensuring adherence to vaccination on timely basis. The system employed involved two components which included the use of automatic SMS text messaging via SMS application as well as the automatic registration reminders via web based applications (Mekonnen et al., 2019). The system notifies successful sending of messages and has been since a turning point for healthcare in Ethiopia where the rate of vaccination has increased since the adoption of the technology.

Donabedian model presents a framework for assessing the health services and evaluating the healthcare quality (Gentry, Powers, Azim &Maidrag, 2018). This model is in line with the purpose of the study which seeks to find a solution to health services to improve the adherence of yearly influenza flu vaccines. On the other hand, text messaging seeks to change the population’s behavior through conditioning.The responses to the text messages by the patient will shape their actions and improve the vaccination rates in consecutive years as it will condition them to cooperate.

Strengths and limitations of current evidence

The contemporary society is characterized by the increased adoption of new technologies. Electronic devices are the key mode of communication with the basic features being the call and messaging applications features. This is a notable strength for the healthcare system since the largest portion of the American population has access to mobile phones which support the reception of messages from the healthcare ministry regarding vaccinations scheduling. In addition, limitless research has been conducted on the use of technology and mobile devices to create health awareness and notify the public of particular important issues in healthcare including vaccination schedules. Therefore, the current evidence is largely exploitative when it comes to the issue of SMS use in healthcare. This is also an advantage to the project since it is based on evidence-based practice that is reliable. However, the available research is based on general vaccination and not specific to influenza vaccine. This limitation is not as damaging to the project since the available information is generalizable and hence applicable in this study.State-of-the-Science Review of the Literature.

Area of issue or gap in practice change

Yearly influenza flu vaccination claims about 3,000 to 49,000 American lives every year. This is attributed to low adherence rates to the vaccine as well as the forgetfulness of the healthcare workers to inform the public of the scheduling of the influenza vaccination exercise. The knowledge gap between the adherence and non-adherence can be therefore bridged by the implementation of an intervention that creates awareness and notifies the public of the need for vaccination and the scheduled dates. Thus, text messaging use among topatients aged 30-70 years each September will increase yearly influenza vaccine rates. This will come between forgetfulness and emphasize the importance of receiving the vaccination.

Quality change plan

The implementation strategy for my evidence-based intervention will entail creation of awareness and interests whereby the advantages and impacts of texting among the 30-70 year old patients will be addressed. This will follow knowledge building and commitment through education, integration of EBP protocols and dissemination of credible information as well as action and adoption promotion. Pursuance of integration and sustained use will also follow as part of the quality change plan.

The implementation plan will be guided by the Plan-Do-Study-Act model whereby, a team will be recruited to acknowledge the problem and need for the development of texting intervention among the target population. This will follow the designation of an aim statement which is to increase the influenza vaccination. The do stage will entail the actual implementation whereby an application will be designed to support the sending of messages. It will also involve data collection and evaluation of the project while the study phase will characterize understanding the project. Reflection of the outcomes will be done at the acting stage where the impact of texting on the adherence of vaccination through the change in rates will be examined.State-of-the-Science Review of the Literature.

Stakeholder and teams

The key stakeholder in the project will be the government, the healthcare system, patients, the citizens and providers. Others include academic researchers, non-governmental organizations, media, international organizations, federal government agencies, federal advisory committees and departments and advocacy groups. Appropriate interdisciplinary team members include the pharmacists, providers, physicians, pharmaceutical company representatives, information technology experts and ministry of health officers.State-of-the-Science Review of the Literature.

Plan for outcome analysis

An analysis plan will facilitate the answering of the PICO question. It will document the required number of people, analyze the figures and tables necessary, map all variables, involve moderators and mediators, granulate variables and contain the last words.State-of-the-Science Review of the Literature.

Ethical considerations: Protection of Human Subjects

Patient privacy and dignity will be protected according to the expectations of the confidentialityand privacy act of healthcare. This is because; the system will involve the access of patient details from the telecommunication companies or the ministry of health which could result in misuse. Authorized access will therefore involve the legal guidelines.State-of-the-Science Review of the Literature.



Expert paper writers are just a few clicks away

Place an order in 3 easy steps. Takes less than 5 mins.

Calculate the price of your order

You will get a personal manager and a discount.
We'll send you the first draft for approval by at
Total price:
Live Chat+1 (631)333-0101EmailWhatsApp