Posted: December 19th, 2022
The Pathophysiology of Rhabdomyolysis.
Grand Canyon University: Nur 631
Rhabdomyolysis is a life-threatening syndrome that is caused by the breakdown of skeletal muscle fibers and then the muscle contents leaks into the circulation (Chavez et al, 2016).
The Pathophysiology of Rhabdomyolysis
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The mechanisms that cause cell damage in rhabdomyolysis consist of injury to the cell membrane, muscle cell hypoxia, depletion of ATP as well as electrolyte disturbances; these mechanisms disrupt the sodium-potassium pumps and generate oxidative free radicals (Torres et al, 2015). Rhabdomyolysis is therefore caused by myocyte injury and lack of adequate energy in the muscle cells causing an imbalance of intracellular electrolyte concentrations.The Pathophysiology of Rhabdomyolysis.
ATP depletion or muscle injury causes an influx of excess Na+ and Ca2+ within the cells. Increased levels of Na+ absorb water within the cells disrupting the intracellular space. Increased levels of Ca2+ within the cells caused myofibrillar contraction further depleting ATP(Chavez et al, 2016). Additionally, increased Ca2+stimulatesCa2+- channels; this caused lysis of the cell membrane, further damaging the ion channels. As a result, an inflammatory myolytic cascade occurs, causing necrosis of the muscle fibers(Torres et al, 2015). Consequently, the muscle contents are released into the circulation and the extracellular space.
Difference between Basal and Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin
The etiology of basal cell carcinoma is within the basal cells. Basal cell carcinoma manifests as a somewhat transparent bump on the skin. Basal cell carcinoma is caused by the mutation of basal cells of the skin. Symptoms of basal cell carcinoma include psoriasis or eczema, open cells, shiny bumps, red patches, or pink growths. Normally, basal cell carcinoma rarely metastasizes (Kang et al, 2016).The Pathophysiology of Rhabdomyolysis.
On the other hand, squamous cell carcinoma occurs within the thin squamous cells making up the skin’s outer layer. Unlike basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma is likely to metastasizeinto the skin’s deeper layers into other body parts (Feller et al, 2016). Therefore, squamous cell carcinoma is aggressive type of cancer when compared to basal cell carcinoma. Symptoms of squamous cell carcinoma include scaly skin and skin irritation. It is also manifested by elevated growths on the skin (Feller et al, 2016).The Pathophysiology of Rhabdomyolysis.
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